Pedal Pressure

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6/25/2015 11:42 AM

Getting a freecoaster soon (Primo Freemix wheel) and i'm switching from a cassette so I'm a bit ignorant about freecoasters. Anyone here recently switch from cassette to freecoasters? If so, how long did it take to get used to? Another thing I've been told is that engaging the hub while going backwards to 5 cab is bad for the hub is this true?

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6/25/2015 12:54 PM

Why get a freecoaster if you don't even understand how they work?

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6/25/2015 1:34 PM

Ahh skeet skeet wrote:

Why get a freecoaster if you don't even understand how they work?

My god i fucking hate people like you

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6/25/2015 1:51 PM

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

My god i fucking hate people like you

well i just went back 14 pages (got too lazy to go any further) and on every page there is 1-5 threads about coasters and most are from people who are switching to them and a good percentage of those people switching to them also don't understand them. there's lots here who hate people like you who repeat questions when the answers are easily found with the search function so maybe you shouldn't be so defensive when someone asked you an honest question.

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My Ride
My Other Ride
I've sold stuff to Ecuadevil, LLURider, and Mario.villegas90 with no complaints.
IG: evildeadhands

6/25/2015 2:18 PM

Ahh skeet skeet wrote:

Why get a freecoaster if you don't even understand how they work?

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

My god i fucking hate people like you

And why would that be?

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6/25/2015 2:19 PM

Ahh skeet skeet wrote:

Why get a freecoaster if you don't even understand how they work?

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

My god i fucking hate people like you

ironmaiden666 wrote:

well i just went back 14 pages (got too lazy to go any further) and on every page there is 1-5 threads about coasters and most are from people who are switching to them and a good percentage of those people switching to them also don't understand them. there's lots here who hate people like you who repeat questions when the answers are easily found with the search function so maybe you shouldn't be so defensive when someone asked you an honest question.

I have gone to like 15 different threads and since most people on the internet love to argue, they go completely off topic about which are the lightest valve caps and i never get any useful information. If you dont know the answer to the question just fuck off instead of leaving unnecessary comments.

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6/25/2015 2:21 PM

Ahh skeet skeet wrote:

Why get a freecoaster if you don't even understand how they work?

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

My god i fucking hate people like you

Ahh skeet skeet wrote:

And why would that be?

I asked a simple question and its really none of your business why I'm getting one I'm just looking for someone to explain if it's bad to use pedal pressure on a coaster.

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6/25/2015 3:14 PM

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

My god i fucking hate people like you

Ahh skeet skeet wrote:

And why would that be?

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

I asked a simple question and its really none of your business why I'm getting one I'm just looking for someone to explain if it's bad to use pedal pressure on a coaster.

I just don't get the point in getting something you don't understand.

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6/25/2015 3:22 PM

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

I have gone to like 15 different threads and since most people on the internet love to argue, they go completely off topic about which are the lightest valve caps and i never get any useful information. If you dont know the answer to the question just fuck off instead of leaving unnecessary comments.

I actually do know the answer to the question even though I have never touched a freecoaster and have no interest in them because there's so many threads about them. You can't use pedal pressure with a freecoaster and that is one of the most commonly known traits of a FC which justifies Ahh Skeet's question. You're the one arguing on the Internet, not anyone else in the thread.

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My Ride
My Other Ride
I've sold stuff to Ecuadevil, LLURider, and Mario.villegas90 with no complaints.
IG: evildeadhands

6/25/2015 3:44 PM

this is my favorite thread ever!

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FIT // ODYESSEY // ANIMAL //

Best hip-hop playlist *(K)ILLuminati*

6/25/2015 4:42 PM
Edited Date/Time: 6/25/2015 4:42 PM

I switched from cassette to coaster last year. It took a good 3 weeks to get used to. I wanted to go back to cassette but xxohioanxx told me to stay on it for a few weeks. After that it becomes natural.

As for pedal pressure, you can't use it. If you manage to you'll just blow the bearings after a while. Good luck.

edit- I have since switched back to cassette. Coasters are way overrated.

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45 refs and counting check profile.

6/25/2015 6:43 PM

Switched from cassette to coaster back to cassette. You can't use pedal pressure, but brakes can help

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Honestly? Who gives a shit. Its the fucking internet. I hate all of you equally.
-HardBMX_Tim

6/25/2015 8:17 PM

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

I have gone to like 15 different threads and since most people on the internet love to argue, they go completely off topic about which are the lightest valve caps and i never get any useful information. If you dont know the answer to the question just fuck off instead of leaving unnecessary comments.

Talk about the pot calling the kettle black. Just a few days ago you told someone to "quit being a pussy and take off your brakes" when they asked about improving their brake performance.

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6/25/2015 8:20 PM

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

My god i fucking hate people like you

ironmaiden666 wrote:

well i just went back 14 pages (got too lazy to go any further) and on every page there is 1-5 threads about coasters and most are from people who are switching to them and a good percentage of those people switching to them also don't understand them. there's lots here who hate people like you who repeat questions when the answers are easily found with the search function so maybe you shouldn't be so defensive when someone asked you an honest question.

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

I have gone to like 15 different threads and since most people on the internet love to argue, they go completely off topic about which are the lightest valve caps and i never get any useful information. If you dont know the answer to the question just fuck off instead of leaving unnecessary comments.

Unnecessary comments? You're saying that

Kimchi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kimchi

Korean name
Hangul 김치
Revised Romanization Gimchi
McCune–Reischauer Kimch'i
A historical depiction of kimchi in a museum in South Korea
A historical depiction of kimchi in a museum in South Korea
Kimchi (hangul: 김치・金血 Korean pronunciation: [kimtɕʰi]; English pronunciation: /ˈkɪmtʃi/), also spelled kimchee or gimchi, is a traditional fermented Korean side dish made of vegetables with a variety of seasonings. It is often described as spicy and sour.[1][2][3] In traditional preparation, kimchi is often allowed to ferment underground in jars for months.[4] There are hundreds of varieties of kimchi made from napa cabbage, radish, scallion, or cucumber as a main ingredient.[5]

History
The term ji was used until the pre-modern terms chimchae (hanja: 沈菜, lit. soaked vegetables), dimchae, and timchae were adopted in the period of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.[6] The word then was modified into jimchi, and is currently kimchi.

Early kimchi was made of cabbage and beef stock only. Red chili, a New World vegetable not found in Korea before European contact with the Americas, was introduced to Korea from Japan after the Japanese invasions (1592–1598) and became a staple ingredient in kimchi,[7] although its use was not documented until the 18th century.[8] Red chili pepper flakes are now used as the main ingredient for spice and source of heat for many varieties of kimchi. In the twelfth century other spices, creating flavors such as sweet and sour, and colors, such as white and orange, were added.[9]

Kimchi is Korea's national dish. During South Korea's involvement in the Vietnam War its government requested American help to ensure that South Korean troops, reportedly "desperate" for the food, could obtain it in the field;[10] South Korean president Park Chung-hee told U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that kimchi was "vitally important to the morale of Korean troops".[4] It was also sent to space on board Soyuz TMA-12 with Yi So-yeon after a multi-million dollar research effort to kill the bacteria and lessen the odor without affecting taste.[10]

Main ingredients
Chili peppers drying for kimchi
Chili peppers drying for kimchi
Kimchi varieties are determined by the main vegetable ingredients and the mix of seasonings used to flavor the kimchi.

The Kimchi Field Museum in Seoul has documented 187 historic and current varieties of kimchi. Ingredients can be replaced or added depending on the type of kimchi being made. The most common seasonings include brine, scallions, spices, ginger, chopped radish, garlic, saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓, shrimp sauce), and aekjeot (hangul: 액젓, fish sauce).

Varieties
Tongkimchi, gulgimchi (kimchi with additional oyster) and other banchan
Tongkimchi, gulgimchi (kimchi with additional oyster) and other banchan
Kimchi can be categorized by main ingredients, regions or seasons. Korea's northern and southern sections have a considerable temperature difference. [11] There are over 180 varieties of kimchi.[12] The most common kimchi variations are baechu kimchi (hangul: 배추김치, napa cabbage kimchi), baechu geotjeori (hangul: 배추겉절이, unfermented napa cabbage kimchi), bossam kimchi (hangul: 보쌈김치), baek kimchi (hangul: 백김치, white kimchi), dongchimi (hangul: 동치미, water-based kimchi), chonggak kimchi (hangul: 총각김치, young radish kimchi), kkakdugi (hangul: 깍두기, daikon kimchi), oisobagi (hangul: 오이소박이, cucumber kimchi), and pa kimchi (hangul: 파김치, green onion kimchi).

Kimchi from the northern parts of Korea tend to have less salt and red chilli and usually do not include brined seafood for seasoning. Northern kimchi often has a watery consistency. Kimchi made in the southern parts of Korea, such as Jeolla-do and Gyeongsang-do, uses salt, chili peppers and myeolchijeot (hangul: 멸치젓, brined anchovy allowed to ferment) or saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓, brined shrimp allowed to ferment), myeolchiaekjeot (Hangul: 멸치액젓, "kkanariaekjeot" 까나리액젓, liquid anchovy jeot, similar to fish sauce used in Southeast Asia, but thicker).

Saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓) or myeolchijeot is not added to the kimchi spice-seasoning mixture, but is simmered first to reduce odors, eliminate tannic flavor and fats, and then is mixed with a thickener made of rice or wheat starch (Hangul: 풀). This technique has been falling into disuse for the past forty years.

White kimchi (baek kimchi) is baechu (napa cabbage) seasoned without chili pepper and is neither red in color nor spicy. White radish kimchi (dongchimi) is another example of a kimchi that is not spicy. The watery white kimchi varieties are sometimes used as an ingredient in a number of dishes such as cold noodles in dongchimi brine (dongchimi guksu).

Regions
Traditional jars used for storing kimchi, gochujang, doenjang, soy sauce and other pickled banchan
Traditional jars used for storing kimchi, gochujang, doenjang, soy sauce and other pickled banchan
This regional classification dates back to 1960s and contains plenty of historical facts, but the current kimchi-making trends in Korea are generally different from those mentioned below.[11]

Solyeonsinbal-do (North Korea, outside of Pyongyang) Non-traditional ingredients have been adapted in rural areas due to severe food shortages.
Hamgyeong-do (Upper Northeast): Due to its proximity to the ocean, people in this particular region use fresh fish and oysters to season their kimchi.
Hwanghae-do (Midwest): The taste of kimchi in Hwanghae-do is not bland but not extremely spicy. Most kimchi from this region has less color since red chili flakes are not used. The typical kimchi for Hwanghae-do is called pumpkin kimchi (bundi).
Kimchi buchimgae, a savoury Korean pancake with kimchi
Kimchi buchimgae, a savoury Korean pancake with kimchi
Gyeonggi-do (Lower Midwest of Hwanghae-do)
Chungcheong-do (Between Gyeonggi-do and Jeolla-do): Instead of using fermented fish, people in the region rely on salt and fermentation to make savory kimchi. Chungcheong-do has the most varieties of kimchi.
Gangwon-do (South Korea)/Kangwon-do (North Korea) (Mideast): In Gangwon-do, kimchi is stored for longer periods. Unlike other coastal regions in Korea, kimchi in this area does not contain much salted fish.
Jeolla-do (Lower Southwest): Salted yellow corvina and salted butterfish are used in this region to create different seasonings for kimchi.
Gyeongsang-do (Lower Southeast): This region's cuisine is saltier and spicier. The most common seasoning components include myeolchijeot (멸치젓) which produce a briny and savory flavor.
Foreign countries: In some places of the world people sometimes make kimchi with western cabbage and many other alternative ingredients such as broccoli.[13][14]
Seasons
Different types of kimchi were traditionally made at different times of the year, based on when various vegetables were in season and also to take advantage of hot and cold seasons before the era of refrigeration. Although the advent of modern refrigeration — including kimchi refrigerators specifically designed with precise controls to keep different varieties of kimchi at optimal temperatures at various stages of fermentation — has made this seasonality unnecessary, Koreans continue to consume kimchi according to traditional seasonal preferences.[15]

Dongchimi (동치미) is largely served during winter.
Dongchimi (동치미) is largely served during winter.
Spring
After a long period of consuming gimjang kimchi (hangul: 김장김치) during the winter, fresh potherbs and vegetables were used to make kimchi. These kinds of kimchi were not fermented or even stored for long periods of time but were consumed fresh.

Summer
Summer radishes and cucumbers are summer vegetables made into kimchi, yeolmu kimchi (hangul: 열무김치) which is eaten in several bites. Brined fish or shellfish can be added, and freshly ground dried chili peppers are often used.

Autumn
Baechu kimchi is prepared by inserting blended stuffing materials, called sok (literally inside), between layers of salted leaves of uncut, whole Napa cabbage. The ingredients of sok (hangul: 속) can vary, depending on the different regions and weather conditions. Generally, baechu kimchi used to have a strong salty flavor until the late 1960s when a large amount of myeolchijeot or saeujeot had been used.

Gogumasoon Kimchi is made of sweet potato stems. In the summer months when they often eat kimchi made materials lack access until the fall. Mangeun not only it can be eaten in a day or 2 to 3 million. Make stripped the bark. Create a lot of good broth is delicious.

Winter
Traditionally, the greatest varieties of kimchi were available during the winter. In preparation for the long winter months, many types of kimjang kimchi (hangul: 김장 김치) were prepared in early winter and stored in the ground in large kimchi pots. Today, many city residents use modern kimchi refrigerators offering precise temperature controls to store kimjang kimchi. November and December are traditionally when people begin to make kimchi; women often gather together in each other's homes to help with winter kimchi preparations.[16] "Baechu kimchi" is made with salted baechu filled with thin strips of radish, parsley, pine nuts, pears, chestnuts, shredded red pepper, manna lichen (석이버섯), garlic, and ginger.

Nutrition and health
Kimchi jjigae
Kimchi jjigae
South Koreans consume 40 pounds (18 kg) of kimchi per person annually,[8] and many credit their industrious energy as a people, and its impact on their nation's rapid economic growth, in part to eating the dish.[10] Kimchi is made of various vegetables and contains a high concentration of dietary fiber,[17][18] while being low in calories. One serving also provides over 50% of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C and carotene. Most types of kimchi contain onions, garlic, ginger, and chilli peppers, all of which are salutary. The vegetables used in kimchi also contribute to its overall nutritional value. Kimchi is rich in vitamin A, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), calcium, and iron,[19][20] and contains lactic acid bacteria, among those the typical species Lactobacillus kimchii.[21][22][23]

During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Asia many people believed that kimchi could protect against infection and while there was no scientific evidence to support this belief, kimchi sales rose by 40%.[24][8]

Nutritional composition of typical kimchi[25]
Nutrients per 100 g Nutrients per 100 g
Food energy 32 kcal Moisture 88.4 g
Crude protein 2.0 g Crude lipid 0.6 g
Total sugar 1.3 g Crude fiber 1.2 g
Crude ash 0.5 g Calcium 45 mg
Phosphorus 28 mg Vitamin A 492 IU
Vitamin B1 0.03 mg Vitamin B2 0.06 mg
Niacin 2.1 mg Vitamin C 21 mg
Dishes made with Kimchi
Kimchijeon
Kimchijeon
Kimchi can be made with white radishes, mustard greens, scallions, or cucumbers. Kimchi is known to be a traditional side dish as it is almost always served along with other side dishes in most Korean family households and restaurants. Kimchi can be eaten alone or with white rice, but it is also included in recipes of other traditional dishes, including porridges, soups, and rice cakes. (Jung, C.) Kimchi is also the basis for many derivative dishes such as kimchi stew (김치찌개; kimchi jjigae), kimchi pancake (김치부침개; kimchijeon), kimchi soup (김칫국; kimchiguk), and kimchi fried rice (김치볶음밥; kimchi bokkeumbap).

Recent history
1996 Japanese kimchi dispute
In 1996, Korea protested against Japanese commercial production of "kimchi" arguing that the Japanese-produced product (kimuchi) was different from kimchi (in particular, that it was not fermented). Korea lobbied for an international standard from the Codex Alimentarius, an organization associated with the World Health Organization that defines voluntary standards for food preparation for international trade purposes.[8][26] In 2001, the Codex Alimentarius published a voluntary standard defining kimchi as "a fermented food that uses salted napa cabbages as its main ingredient mixed with seasonings, and goes through a lactic acid production process at a low temperature", but which did not specify a minimum amount of fermentation nor forbid the use of any additives.[27][third-party source needed]

2010 kimchi ingredient price crisis
Due to heavy rainfall shortening the harvesting time for cabbage and other main ingredients for kimchi in 2010, the price of kimchi ingredients and kimchi itself rose greatly. Korean newspapers described the rise in prices as a national crisis. Some restaurants stopped offering kimchi as a free side dish, which The New York Times compared to an American hamburger restaurant no longer offering free ketchup.[16] In response to the Kimchi price crisis, the South Korean government announced the temporary reduction of tariffs on imported cabbage to coincide with the Kimjang season.[28]

2012 Effective ban of Korean kimchi exports to China
Since 2012, the Chinese government has effectively banned Korean kimchi exports to China through government regulations. Ignoring the standards of Kimchi outlied by the Codex Alimentarius, China defined kimchi as a derivative of one of its own cuisines, called Pao cai.[1] However, due to significantly different preparation techniques from Pao cai, kimchi has significantly more lactic acid bacteria through its fermentation process, which exceeds China's regulations.[2] Since 2012, commercial exports of Korean kimchi to China has reached zero, the only minor amounts of exports accounting for Korean kimchi exhibition events held in China.[3]

2013 Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
Kimjang, the tradition of making and sharing of kimchi that usually takes place in late autumn, was added to the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The practice of Kimjang reaffirms Korean identity and strengthens family cooperation. Kimjang is also an important reminder for many Koreans that human communities need to live in harmony with nature.[29]

Gallery
Preparation for making kimchi Preparation for making kimchi
Seokryu kimchi named after its pomegranate-like shapeSeokryu kimchi named after its pomegranate-like shape
Jang kimchi, pickled with soy sauceJang kimchi, pickled with soy sauce
Displayed manufactured kimchi Displayed manufactured kimchi
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See also
References
Further reading
External links
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kimchi.
Kimchi
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This page is based on a Wikipedia article (read/edit) and qw.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.
Cover photo is available under CC BY 2.0 License. Credit: by elle_rigby (see original file).

Is unnecessary?

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YOU AVIN A LAUGH M8?
┬┴┬┴┤ ( ͡° ͜ʖ├┬┴┬┴
The Trailest Bike On Vital

6/25/2015 8:32 PM

Xxohioanxx wrote:

Unnecessary comments? You're saying that

Kimchi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kimchi

Korean name
Hangul 김치
Revised Romanization Gimchi
McCune–Reischauer Kimch'i
A historical depiction of kimchi in a museum in South Korea
A historical depiction of kimchi in a museum in South Korea
Kimchi (hangul: 김치・金血 Korean pronunciation: [kimtɕʰi]; English pronunciation: /ˈkɪmtʃi/), also spelled kimchee or gimchi, is a traditional fermented Korean side dish made of vegetables with a variety of seasonings. It is often described as spicy and sour.[1][2][3] In traditional preparation, kimchi is often allowed to ferment underground in jars for months.[4] There are hundreds of varieties of kimchi made from napa cabbage, radish, scallion, or cucumber as a main ingredient.[5]

History
The term ji was used until the pre-modern terms chimchae (hanja: 沈菜, lit. soaked vegetables), dimchae, and timchae were adopted in the period of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.[6] The word then was modified into jimchi, and is currently kimchi.

Early kimchi was made of cabbage and beef stock only. Red chili, a New World vegetable not found in Korea before European contact with the Americas, was introduced to Korea from Japan after the Japanese invasions (1592–1598) and became a staple ingredient in kimchi,[7] although its use was not documented until the 18th century.[8] Red chili pepper flakes are now used as the main ingredient for spice and source of heat for many varieties of kimchi. In the twelfth century other spices, creating flavors such as sweet and sour, and colors, such as white and orange, were added.[9]

Kimchi is Korea's national dish. During South Korea's involvement in the Vietnam War its government requested American help to ensure that South Korean troops, reportedly "desperate" for the food, could obtain it in the field;[10] South Korean president Park Chung-hee told U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that kimchi was "vitally important to the morale of Korean troops".[4] It was also sent to space on board Soyuz TMA-12 with Yi So-yeon after a multi-million dollar research effort to kill the bacteria and lessen the odor without affecting taste.[10]

Main ingredients
Chili peppers drying for kimchi
Chili peppers drying for kimchi
Kimchi varieties are determined by the main vegetable ingredients and the mix of seasonings used to flavor the kimchi.

The Kimchi Field Museum in Seoul has documented 187 historic and current varieties of kimchi. Ingredients can be replaced or added depending on the type of kimchi being made. The most common seasonings include brine, scallions, spices, ginger, chopped radish, garlic, saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓, shrimp sauce), and aekjeot (hangul: 액젓, fish sauce).

Varieties
Tongkimchi, gulgimchi (kimchi with additional oyster) and other banchan
Tongkimchi, gulgimchi (kimchi with additional oyster) and other banchan
Kimchi can be categorized by main ingredients, regions or seasons. Korea's northern and southern sections have a considerable temperature difference. [11] There are over 180 varieties of kimchi.[12] The most common kimchi variations are baechu kimchi (hangul: 배추김치, napa cabbage kimchi), baechu geotjeori (hangul: 배추겉절이, unfermented napa cabbage kimchi), bossam kimchi (hangul: 보쌈김치), baek kimchi (hangul: 백김치, white kimchi), dongchimi (hangul: 동치미, water-based kimchi), chonggak kimchi (hangul: 총각김치, young radish kimchi), kkakdugi (hangul: 깍두기, daikon kimchi), oisobagi (hangul: 오이소박이, cucumber kimchi), and pa kimchi (hangul: 파김치, green onion kimchi).

Kimchi from the northern parts of Korea tend to have less salt and red chilli and usually do not include brined seafood for seasoning. Northern kimchi often has a watery consistency. Kimchi made in the southern parts of Korea, such as Jeolla-do and Gyeongsang-do, uses salt, chili peppers and myeolchijeot (hangul: 멸치젓, brined anchovy allowed to ferment) or saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓, brined shrimp allowed to ferment), myeolchiaekjeot (Hangul: 멸치액젓, "kkanariaekjeot" 까나리액젓, liquid anchovy jeot, similar to fish sauce used in Southeast Asia, but thicker).

Saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓) or myeolchijeot is not added to the kimchi spice-seasoning mixture, but is simmered first to reduce odors, eliminate tannic flavor and fats, and then is mixed with a thickener made of rice or wheat starch (Hangul: 풀). This technique has been falling into disuse for the past forty years.

White kimchi (baek kimchi) is baechu (napa cabbage) seasoned without chili pepper and is neither red in color nor spicy. White radish kimchi (dongchimi) is another example of a kimchi that is not spicy. The watery white kimchi varieties are sometimes used as an ingredient in a number of dishes such as cold noodles in dongchimi brine (dongchimi guksu).

Regions
Traditional jars used for storing kimchi, gochujang, doenjang, soy sauce and other pickled banchan
Traditional jars used for storing kimchi, gochujang, doenjang, soy sauce and other pickled banchan
This regional classification dates back to 1960s and contains plenty of historical facts, but the current kimchi-making trends in Korea are generally different from those mentioned below.[11]

Solyeonsinbal-do (North Korea, outside of Pyongyang) Non-traditional ingredients have been adapted in rural areas due to severe food shortages.
Hamgyeong-do (Upper Northeast): Due to its proximity to the ocean, people in this particular region use fresh fish and oysters to season their kimchi.
Hwanghae-do (Midwest): The taste of kimchi in Hwanghae-do is not bland but not extremely spicy. Most kimchi from this region has less color since red chili flakes are not used. The typical kimchi for Hwanghae-do is called pumpkin kimchi (bundi).
Kimchi buchimgae, a savoury Korean pancake with kimchi
Kimchi buchimgae, a savoury Korean pancake with kimchi
Gyeonggi-do (Lower Midwest of Hwanghae-do)
Chungcheong-do (Between Gyeonggi-do and Jeolla-do): Instead of using fermented fish, people in the region rely on salt and fermentation to make savory kimchi. Chungcheong-do has the most varieties of kimchi.
Gangwon-do (South Korea)/Kangwon-do (North Korea) (Mideast): In Gangwon-do, kimchi is stored for longer periods. Unlike other coastal regions in Korea, kimchi in this area does not contain much salted fish.
Jeolla-do (Lower Southwest): Salted yellow corvina and salted butterfish are used in this region to create different seasonings for kimchi.
Gyeongsang-do (Lower Southeast): This region's cuisine is saltier and spicier. The most common seasoning components include myeolchijeot (멸치젓) which produce a briny and savory flavor.
Foreign countries: In some places of the world people sometimes make kimchi with western cabbage and many other alternative ingredients such as broccoli.[13][14]
Seasons
Different types of kimchi were traditionally made at different times of the year, based on when various vegetables were in season and also to take advantage of hot and cold seasons before the era of refrigeration. Although the advent of modern refrigeration — including kimchi refrigerators specifically designed with precise controls to keep different varieties of kimchi at optimal temperatures at various stages of fermentation — has made this seasonality unnecessary, Koreans continue to consume kimchi according to traditional seasonal preferences.[15]

Dongchimi (동치미) is largely served during winter.
Dongchimi (동치미) is largely served during winter.
Spring
After a long period of consuming gimjang kimchi (hangul: 김장김치) during the winter, fresh potherbs and vegetables were used to make kimchi. These kinds of kimchi were not fermented or even stored for long periods of time but were consumed fresh.

Summer
Summer radishes and cucumbers are summer vegetables made into kimchi, yeolmu kimchi (hangul: 열무김치) which is eaten in several bites. Brined fish or shellfish can be added, and freshly ground dried chili peppers are often used.

Autumn
Baechu kimchi is prepared by inserting blended stuffing materials, called sok (literally inside), between layers of salted leaves of uncut, whole Napa cabbage. The ingredients of sok (hangul: 속) can vary, depending on the different regions and weather conditions. Generally, baechu kimchi used to have a strong salty flavor until the late 1960s when a large amount of myeolchijeot or saeujeot had been used.

Gogumasoon Kimchi is made of sweet potato stems. In the summer months when they often eat kimchi made materials lack access until the fall. Mangeun not only it can be eaten in a day or 2 to 3 million. Make stripped the bark. Create a lot of good broth is delicious.

Winter
Traditionally, the greatest varieties of kimchi were available during the winter. In preparation for the long winter months, many types of kimjang kimchi (hangul: 김장 김치) were prepared in early winter and stored in the ground in large kimchi pots. Today, many city residents use modern kimchi refrigerators offering precise temperature controls to store kimjang kimchi. November and December are traditionally when people begin to make kimchi; women often gather together in each other's homes to help with winter kimchi preparations.[16] "Baechu kimchi" is made with salted baechu filled with thin strips of radish, parsley, pine nuts, pears, chestnuts, shredded red pepper, manna lichen (석이버섯), garlic, and ginger.

Nutrition and health
Kimchi jjigae
Kimchi jjigae
South Koreans consume 40 pounds (18 kg) of kimchi per person annually,[8] and many credit their industrious energy as a people, and its impact on their nation's rapid economic growth, in part to eating the dish.[10] Kimchi is made of various vegetables and contains a high concentration of dietary fiber,[17][18] while being low in calories. One serving also provides over 50% of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C and carotene. Most types of kimchi contain onions, garlic, ginger, and chilli peppers, all of which are salutary. The vegetables used in kimchi also contribute to its overall nutritional value. Kimchi is rich in vitamin A, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), calcium, and iron,[19][20] and contains lactic acid bacteria, among those the typical species Lactobacillus kimchii.[21][22][23]

During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Asia many people believed that kimchi could protect against infection and while there was no scientific evidence to support this belief, kimchi sales rose by 40%.[24][8]

Nutritional composition of typical kimchi[25]
Nutrients per 100 g Nutrients per 100 g
Food energy 32 kcal Moisture 88.4 g
Crude protein 2.0 g Crude lipid 0.6 g
Total sugar 1.3 g Crude fiber 1.2 g
Crude ash 0.5 g Calcium 45 mg
Phosphorus 28 mg Vitamin A 492 IU
Vitamin B1 0.03 mg Vitamin B2 0.06 mg
Niacin 2.1 mg Vitamin C 21 mg
Dishes made with Kimchi
Kimchijeon
Kimchijeon
Kimchi can be made with white radishes, mustard greens, scallions, or cucumbers. Kimchi is known to be a traditional side dish as it is almost always served along with other side dishes in most Korean family households and restaurants. Kimchi can be eaten alone or with white rice, but it is also included in recipes of other traditional dishes, including porridges, soups, and rice cakes. (Jung, C.) Kimchi is also the basis for many derivative dishes such as kimchi stew (김치찌개; kimchi jjigae), kimchi pancake (김치부침개; kimchijeon), kimchi soup (김칫국; kimchiguk), and kimchi fried rice (김치볶음밥; kimchi bokkeumbap).

Recent history
1996 Japanese kimchi dispute
In 1996, Korea protested against Japanese commercial production of "kimchi" arguing that the Japanese-produced product (kimuchi) was different from kimchi (in particular, that it was not fermented). Korea lobbied for an international standard from the Codex Alimentarius, an organization associated with the World Health Organization that defines voluntary standards for food preparation for international trade purposes.[8][26] In 2001, the Codex Alimentarius published a voluntary standard defining kimchi as "a fermented food that uses salted napa cabbages as its main ingredient mixed with seasonings, and goes through a lactic acid production process at a low temperature", but which did not specify a minimum amount of fermentation nor forbid the use of any additives.[27][third-party source needed]

2010 kimchi ingredient price crisis
Due to heavy rainfall shortening the harvesting time for cabbage and other main ingredients for kimchi in 2010, the price of kimchi ingredients and kimchi itself rose greatly. Korean newspapers described the rise in prices as a national crisis. Some restaurants stopped offering kimchi as a free side dish, which The New York Times compared to an American hamburger restaurant no longer offering free ketchup.[16] In response to the Kimchi price crisis, the South Korean government announced the temporary reduction of tariffs on imported cabbage to coincide with the Kimjang season.[28]

2012 Effective ban of Korean kimchi exports to China
Since 2012, the Chinese government has effectively banned Korean kimchi exports to China through government regulations. Ignoring the standards of Kimchi outlied by the Codex Alimentarius, China defined kimchi as a derivative of one of its own cuisines, called Pao cai.[1] However, due to significantly different preparation techniques from Pao cai, kimchi has significantly more lactic acid bacteria through its fermentation process, which exceeds China's regulations.[2] Since 2012, commercial exports of Korean kimchi to China has reached zero, the only minor amounts of exports accounting for Korean kimchi exhibition events held in China.[3]

2013 Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
Kimjang, the tradition of making and sharing of kimchi that usually takes place in late autumn, was added to the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The practice of Kimjang reaffirms Korean identity and strengthens family cooperation. Kimjang is also an important reminder for many Koreans that human communities need to live in harmony with nature.[29]

Gallery
Preparation for making kimchi Preparation for making kimchi
Seokryu kimchi named after its pomegranate-like shapeSeokryu kimchi named after its pomegranate-like shape
Jang kimchi, pickled with soy sauceJang kimchi, pickled with soy sauce
Displayed manufactured kimchi Displayed manufactured kimchi
PreviousNext
See also
References
Further reading
External links
Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kimchi.
Kimchi
Authority control
Categories
This page is based on a Wikipedia article (read/edit) and qw.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.
Cover photo is available under CC BY 2.0 License. Credit: by elle_rigby (see original file).

Is unnecessary?

What does it smell like though? Like sauerkraut perhaps?

|

6/25/2015 9:23 PM

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

I have gone to like 15 different threads and since most people on the internet love to argue, they go completely off topic about which are the lightest valve caps and i never get any useful information. If you dont know the answer to the question just fuck off instead of leaving unnecessary comments.

Xxohioanxx wrote:

Unnecessary comments? You're saying that

Kimchi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kimchi

Korean name
Hangul 김치
Revised Romanization Gimchi
McCune–Reischauer Kimch'i
A historical depiction of kimchi in a museum in South Korea
A historical depiction of kimchi in a museum in South Korea
Kimchi (hangul: 김치・金血 Korean pronunciation: [kimtɕʰi]; English pronunciation: /ˈkɪmtʃi/), also spelled kimchee or gimchi, is a traditional fermented Korean side dish made of vegetables with a variety of seasonings. It is often described as spicy and sour.[1][2][3] In traditional preparation, kimchi is often allowed to ferment underground in jars for months.[4] There are hundreds of varieties of kimchi made from napa cabbage, radish, scallion, or cucumber as a main ingredient.[5]

History
The term ji was used until the pre-modern terms chimchae (hanja: 沈菜, lit. soaked vegetables), dimchae, and timchae were adopted in the period of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.[6] The word then was modified into jimchi, and is currently kimchi.

Early kimchi was made of cabbage and beef stock only. Red chili, a New World vegetable not found in Korea before European contact with the Americas, was introduced to Korea from Japan after the Japanese invasions (1592–1598) and became a staple ingredient in kimchi,[7] although its use was not documented until the 18th century.[8] Red chili pepper flakes are now used as the main ingredient for spice and source of heat for many varieties of kimchi. In the twelfth century other spices, creating flavors such as sweet and sour, and colors, such as white and orange, were added.[9]

Kimchi is Korea's national dish. During South Korea's involvement in the Vietnam War its government requested American help to ensure that South Korean troops, reportedly "desperate" for the food, could obtain it in the field;[10] South Korean president Park Chung-hee told U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that kimchi was "vitally important to the morale of Korean troops".[4] It was also sent to space on board Soyuz TMA-12 with Yi So-yeon after a multi-million dollar research effort to kill the bacteria and lessen the odor without affecting taste.[10]

Main ingredients
Chili peppers drying for kimchi
Chili peppers drying for kimchi
Kimchi varieties are determined by the main vegetable ingredients and the mix of seasonings used to flavor the kimchi.

The Kimchi Field Museum in Seoul has documented 187 historic and current varieties of kimchi. Ingredients can be replaced or added depending on the type of kimchi being made. The most common seasonings include brine, scallions, spices, ginger, chopped radish, garlic, saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓, shrimp sauce), and aekjeot (hangul: 액젓, fish sauce).

Varieties
Tongkimchi, gulgimchi (kimchi with additional oyster) and other banchan
Tongkimchi, gulgimchi (kimchi with additional oyster) and other banchan
Kimchi can be categorized by main ingredients, regions or seasons. Korea's northern and southern sections have a considerable temperature difference. [11] There are over 180 varieties of kimchi.[12] The most common kimchi variations are baechu kimchi (hangul: 배추김치, napa cabbage kimchi), baechu geotjeori (hangul: 배추겉절이, unfermented napa cabbage kimchi), bossam kimchi (hangul: 보쌈김치), baek kimchi (hangul: 백김치, white kimchi), dongchimi (hangul: 동치미, water-based kimchi), chonggak kimchi (hangul: 총각김치, young radish kimchi), kkakdugi (hangul: 깍두기, daikon kimchi), oisobagi (hangul: 오이소박이, cucumber kimchi), and pa kimchi (hangul: 파김치, green onion kimchi).

Kimchi from the northern parts of Korea tend to have less salt and red chilli and usually do not include brined seafood for seasoning. Northern kimchi often has a watery consistency. Kimchi made in the southern parts of Korea, such as Jeolla-do and Gyeongsang-do, uses salt, chili peppers and myeolchijeot (hangul: 멸치젓, brined anchovy allowed to ferment) or saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓, brined shrimp allowed to ferment), myeolchiaekjeot (Hangul: 멸치액젓, "kkanariaekjeot" 까나리액젓, liquid anchovy jeot, similar to fish sauce used in Southeast Asia, but thicker).

Saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓) or myeolchijeot is not added to the kimchi spice-seasoning mixture, but is simmered first to reduce odors, eliminate tannic flavor and fats, and then is mixed with a thickener made of rice or wheat starch (Hangul: 풀). This technique has been falling into disuse for the past forty years.

White kimchi (baek kimchi) is baechu (napa cabbage) seasoned without chili pepper and is neither red in color nor spicy. White radish kimchi (dongchimi) is another example of a kimchi that is not spicy. The watery white kimchi varieties are sometimes used as an ingredient in a number of dishes such as cold noodles in dongchimi brine (dongchimi guksu).

Regions
Traditional jars used for storing kimchi, gochujang, doenjang, soy sauce and other pickled banchan
Traditional jars used for storing kimchi, gochujang, doenjang, soy sauce and other pickled banchan
This regional classification dates back to 1960s and contains plenty of historical facts, but the current kimchi-making trends in Korea are generally different from those mentioned below.[11]

Solyeonsinbal-do (North Korea, outside of Pyongyang) Non-traditional ingredients have been adapted in rural areas due to severe food shortages.
Hamgyeong-do (Upper Northeast): Due to its proximity to the ocean, people in this particular region use fresh fish and oysters to season their kimchi.
Hwanghae-do (Midwest): The taste of kimchi in Hwanghae-do is not bland but not extremely spicy. Most kimchi from this region has less color since red chili flakes are not used. The typical kimchi for Hwanghae-do is called pumpkin kimchi (bundi).
Kimchi buchimgae, a savoury Korean pancake with kimchi
Kimchi buchimgae, a savoury Korean pancake with kimchi
Gyeonggi-do (Lower Midwest of Hwanghae-do)
Chungcheong-do (Between Gyeonggi-do and Jeolla-do): Instead of using fermented fish, people in the region rely on salt and fermentation to make savory kimchi. Chungcheong-do has the most varieties of kimchi.
Gangwon-do (South Korea)/Kangwon-do (North Korea) (Mideast): In Gangwon-do, kimchi is stored for longer periods. Unlike other coastal regions in Korea, kimchi in this area does not contain much salted fish.
Jeolla-do (Lower Southwest): Salted yellow corvina and salted butterfish are used in this region to create different seasonings for kimchi.
Gyeongsang-do (Lower Southeast): This region's cuisine is saltier and spicier. The most common seasoning components include myeolchijeot (멸치젓) which produce a briny and savory flavor.
Foreign countries: In some places of the world people sometimes make kimchi with western cabbage and many other alternative ingredients such as broccoli.[13][14]
Seasons
Different types of kimchi were traditionally made at different times of the year, based on when various vegetables were in season and also to take advantage of hot and cold seasons before the era of refrigeration. Although the advent of modern refrigeration — including kimchi refrigerators specifically designed with precise controls to keep different varieties of kimchi at optimal temperatures at various stages of fermentation — has made this seasonality unnecessary, Koreans continue to consume kimchi according to traditional seasonal preferences.[15]

Dongchimi (동치미) is largely served during winter.
Dongchimi (동치미) is largely served during winter.
Spring
After a long period of consuming gimjang kimchi (hangul: 김장김치) during the winter, fresh potherbs and vegetables were used to make kimchi. These kinds of kimchi were not fermented or even stored for long periods of time but were consumed fresh.

Summer
Summer radishes and cucumbers are summer vegetables made into kimchi, yeolmu kimchi (hangul: 열무김치) which is eaten in several bites. Brined fish or shellfish can be added, and freshly ground dried chili peppers are often used.

Autumn
Baechu kimchi is prepared by inserting blended stuffing materials, called sok (literally inside), between layers of salted leaves of uncut, whole Napa cabbage. The ingredients of sok (hangul: 속) can vary, depending on the different regions and weather conditions. Generally, baechu kimchi used to have a strong salty flavor until the late 1960s when a large amount of myeolchijeot or saeujeot had been used.

Gogumasoon Kimchi is made of sweet potato stems. In the summer months when they often eat kimchi made materials lack access until the fall. Mangeun not only it can be eaten in a day or 2 to 3 million. Make stripped the bark. Create a lot of good broth is delicious.

Winter
Traditionally, the greatest varieties of kimchi were available during the winter. In preparation for the long winter months, many types of kimjang kimchi (hangul: 김장 김치) were prepared in early winter and stored in the ground in large kimchi pots. Today, many city residents use modern kimchi refrigerators offering precise temperature controls to store kimjang kimchi. November and December are traditionally when people begin to make kimchi; women often gather together in each other's homes to help with winter kimchi preparations.[16] "Baechu kimchi" is made with salted baechu filled with thin strips of radish, parsley, pine nuts, pears, chestnuts, shredded red pepper, manna lichen (석이버섯), garlic, and ginger.

Nutrition and health
Kimchi jjigae
Kimchi jjigae
South Koreans consume 40 pounds (18 kg) of kimchi per person annually,[8] and many credit their industrious energy as a people, and its impact on their nation's rapid economic growth, in part to eating the dish.[10] Kimchi is made of various vegetables and contains a high concentration of dietary fiber,[17][18] while being low in calories. One serving also provides over 50% of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C and carotene. Most types of kimchi contain onions, garlic, ginger, and chilli peppers, all of which are salutary. The vegetables used in kimchi also contribute to its overall nutritional value. Kimchi is rich in vitamin A, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), calcium, and iron,[19][20] and contains lactic acid bacteria, among those the typical species Lactobacillus kimchii.[21][22][23]

During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Asia many people believed that kimchi could protect against infection and while there was no scientific evidence to support this belief, kimchi sales rose by 40%.[24][8]

Nutritional composition of typical kimchi[25]
Nutrients per 100 g Nutrients per 100 g
Food energy 32 kcal Moisture 88.4 g
Crude protein 2.0 g Crude lipid 0.6 g
Total sugar 1.3 g Crude fiber 1.2 g
Crude ash 0.5 g Calcium 45 mg
Phosphorus 28 mg Vitamin A 492 IU
Vitamin B1 0.03 mg Vitamin B2 0.06 mg
Niacin 2.1 mg Vitamin C 21 mg
Dishes made with Kimchi
Kimchijeon
Kimchijeon
Kimchi can be made with white radishes, mustard greens, scallions, or cucumbers. Kimchi is known to be a traditional side dish as it is almost always served along with other side dishes in most Korean family households and restaurants. Kimchi can be eaten alone or with white rice, but it is also included in recipes of other traditional dishes, including porridges, soups, and rice cakes. (Jung, C.) Kimchi is also the basis for many derivative dishes such as kimchi stew (김치찌개; kimchi jjigae), kimchi pancake (김치부침개; kimchijeon), kimchi soup (김칫국; kimchiguk), and kimchi fried rice (김치볶음밥; kimchi bokkeumbap).

Recent history
1996 Japanese kimchi dispute
In 1996, Korea protested against Japanese commercial production of "kimchi" arguing that the Japanese-produced product (kimuchi) was different from kimchi (in particular, that it was not fermented). Korea lobbied for an international standard from the Codex Alimentarius, an organization associated with the World Health Organization that defines voluntary standards for food preparation for international trade purposes.[8][26] In 2001, the Codex Alimentarius published a voluntary standard defining kimchi as "a fermented food that uses salted napa cabbages as its main ingredient mixed with seasonings, and goes through a lactic acid production process at a low temperature", but which did not specify a minimum amount of fermentation nor forbid the use of any additives.[27][third-party source needed]

2010 kimchi ingredient price crisis
Due to heavy rainfall shortening the harvesting time for cabbage and other main ingredients for kimchi in 2010, the price of kimchi ingredients and kimchi itself rose greatly. Korean newspapers described the rise in prices as a national crisis. Some restaurants stopped offering kimchi as a free side dish, which The New York Times compared to an American hamburger restaurant no longer offering free ketchup.[16] In response to the Kimchi price crisis, the South Korean government announced the temporary reduction of tariffs on imported cabbage to coincide with the Kimjang season.[28]

2012 Effective ban of Korean kimchi exports to China
Since 2012, the Chinese government has effectively banned Korean kimchi exports to China through government regulations. Ignoring the standards of Kimchi outlied by the Codex Alimentarius, China defined kimchi as a derivative of one of its own cuisines, called Pao cai.[1] However, due to significantly different preparation techniques from Pao cai, kimchi has significantly more lactic acid bacteria through its fermentation process, which exceeds China's regulations.[2] Since 2012, commercial exports of Korean kimchi to China has reached zero, the only minor amounts of exports accounting for Korean kimchi exhibition events held in China.[3]

2013 Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
Kimjang, the tradition of making and sharing of kimchi that usually takes place in late autumn, was added to the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The practice of Kimjang reaffirms Korean identity and strengthens family cooperation. Kimjang is also an important reminder for many Koreans that human communities need to live in harmony with nature.[29]

Gallery
Preparation for making kimchi Preparation for making kimchi
Seokryu kimchi named after its pomegranate-like shapeSeokryu kimchi named after its pomegranate-like shape
Jang kimchi, pickled with soy sauceJang kimchi, pickled with soy sauce
Displayed manufactured kimchi Displayed manufactured kimchi
PreviousNext
See also
References
Further reading
External links
Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kimchi.
Kimchi
Authority control
Categories
This page is based on a Wikipedia article (read/edit) and qw.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.
Cover photo is available under CC BY 2.0 License. Credit: by elle_rigby (see original file).

Is unnecessary?

Oddity wrote:

What does it smell like though? Like sauerkraut perhaps?

What the hell do either of xxohioanxx and oddity's comments have to do with the lightest valve caps. Koorean enginer or not, I believe nothing you have written about kimchi. You used wikipedia as a source. Something smells fishy to me. Point proven, case closed

|

6/25/2015 9:38 PM

Xxohioanxx wrote:

Unnecessary comments? You're saying that

Kimchi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kimchi

Korean name
Hangul 김치
Revised Romanization Gimchi
McCune–Reischauer Kimch'i
A historical depiction of kimchi in a museum in South Korea
A historical depiction of kimchi in a museum in South Korea
Kimchi (hangul: 김치・金血 Korean pronunciation: [kimtɕʰi]; English pronunciation: /ˈkɪmtʃi/), also spelled kimchee or gimchi, is a traditional fermented Korean side dish made of vegetables with a variety of seasonings. It is often described as spicy and sour.[1][2][3] In traditional preparation, kimchi is often allowed to ferment underground in jars for months.[4] There are hundreds of varieties of kimchi made from napa cabbage, radish, scallion, or cucumber as a main ingredient.[5]

History
The term ji was used until the pre-modern terms chimchae (hanja: 沈菜, lit. soaked vegetables), dimchae, and timchae were adopted in the period of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.[6] The word then was modified into jimchi, and is currently kimchi.

Early kimchi was made of cabbage and beef stock only. Red chili, a New World vegetable not found in Korea before European contact with the Americas, was introduced to Korea from Japan after the Japanese invasions (1592–1598) and became a staple ingredient in kimchi,[7] although its use was not documented until the 18th century.[8] Red chili pepper flakes are now used as the main ingredient for spice and source of heat for many varieties of kimchi. In the twelfth century other spices, creating flavors such as sweet and sour, and colors, such as white and orange, were added.[9]

Kimchi is Korea's national dish. During South Korea's involvement in the Vietnam War its government requested American help to ensure that South Korean troops, reportedly "desperate" for the food, could obtain it in the field;[10] South Korean president Park Chung-hee told U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that kimchi was "vitally important to the morale of Korean troops".[4] It was also sent to space on board Soyuz TMA-12 with Yi So-yeon after a multi-million dollar research effort to kill the bacteria and lessen the odor without affecting taste.[10]

Main ingredients
Chili peppers drying for kimchi
Chili peppers drying for kimchi
Kimchi varieties are determined by the main vegetable ingredients and the mix of seasonings used to flavor the kimchi.

The Kimchi Field Museum in Seoul has documented 187 historic and current varieties of kimchi. Ingredients can be replaced or added depending on the type of kimchi being made. The most common seasonings include brine, scallions, spices, ginger, chopped radish, garlic, saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓, shrimp sauce), and aekjeot (hangul: 액젓, fish sauce).

Varieties
Tongkimchi, gulgimchi (kimchi with additional oyster) and other banchan
Tongkimchi, gulgimchi (kimchi with additional oyster) and other banchan
Kimchi can be categorized by main ingredients, regions or seasons. Korea's northern and southern sections have a considerable temperature difference. [11] There are over 180 varieties of kimchi.[12] The most common kimchi variations are baechu kimchi (hangul: 배추김치, napa cabbage kimchi), baechu geotjeori (hangul: 배추겉절이, unfermented napa cabbage kimchi), bossam kimchi (hangul: 보쌈김치), baek kimchi (hangul: 백김치, white kimchi), dongchimi (hangul: 동치미, water-based kimchi), chonggak kimchi (hangul: 총각김치, young radish kimchi), kkakdugi (hangul: 깍두기, daikon kimchi), oisobagi (hangul: 오이소박이, cucumber kimchi), and pa kimchi (hangul: 파김치, green onion kimchi).

Kimchi from the northern parts of Korea tend to have less salt and red chilli and usually do not include brined seafood for seasoning. Northern kimchi often has a watery consistency. Kimchi made in the southern parts of Korea, such as Jeolla-do and Gyeongsang-do, uses salt, chili peppers and myeolchijeot (hangul: 멸치젓, brined anchovy allowed to ferment) or saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓, brined shrimp allowed to ferment), myeolchiaekjeot (Hangul: 멸치액젓, "kkanariaekjeot" 까나리액젓, liquid anchovy jeot, similar to fish sauce used in Southeast Asia, but thicker).

Saeujeot (hangul: 새우젓) or myeolchijeot is not added to the kimchi spice-seasoning mixture, but is simmered first to reduce odors, eliminate tannic flavor and fats, and then is mixed with a thickener made of rice or wheat starch (Hangul: 풀). This technique has been falling into disuse for the past forty years.

White kimchi (baek kimchi) is baechu (napa cabbage) seasoned without chili pepper and is neither red in color nor spicy. White radish kimchi (dongchimi) is another example of a kimchi that is not spicy. The watery white kimchi varieties are sometimes used as an ingredient in a number of dishes such as cold noodles in dongchimi brine (dongchimi guksu).

Regions
Traditional jars used for storing kimchi, gochujang, doenjang, soy sauce and other pickled banchan
Traditional jars used for storing kimchi, gochujang, doenjang, soy sauce and other pickled banchan
This regional classification dates back to 1960s and contains plenty of historical facts, but the current kimchi-making trends in Korea are generally different from those mentioned below.[11]

Solyeonsinbal-do (North Korea, outside of Pyongyang) Non-traditional ingredients have been adapted in rural areas due to severe food shortages.
Hamgyeong-do (Upper Northeast): Due to its proximity to the ocean, people in this particular region use fresh fish and oysters to season their kimchi.
Hwanghae-do (Midwest): The taste of kimchi in Hwanghae-do is not bland but not extremely spicy. Most kimchi from this region has less color since red chili flakes are not used. The typical kimchi for Hwanghae-do is called pumpkin kimchi (bundi).
Kimchi buchimgae, a savoury Korean pancake with kimchi
Kimchi buchimgae, a savoury Korean pancake with kimchi
Gyeonggi-do (Lower Midwest of Hwanghae-do)
Chungcheong-do (Between Gyeonggi-do and Jeolla-do): Instead of using fermented fish, people in the region rely on salt and fermentation to make savory kimchi. Chungcheong-do has the most varieties of kimchi.
Gangwon-do (South Korea)/Kangwon-do (North Korea) (Mideast): In Gangwon-do, kimchi is stored for longer periods. Unlike other coastal regions in Korea, kimchi in this area does not contain much salted fish.
Jeolla-do (Lower Southwest): Salted yellow corvina and salted butterfish are used in this region to create different seasonings for kimchi.
Gyeongsang-do (Lower Southeast): This region's cuisine is saltier and spicier. The most common seasoning components include myeolchijeot (멸치젓) which produce a briny and savory flavor.
Foreign countries: In some places of the world people sometimes make kimchi with western cabbage and many other alternative ingredients such as broccoli.[13][14]
Seasons
Different types of kimchi were traditionally made at different times of the year, based on when various vegetables were in season and also to take advantage of hot and cold seasons before the era of refrigeration. Although the advent of modern refrigeration — including kimchi refrigerators specifically designed with precise controls to keep different varieties of kimchi at optimal temperatures at various stages of fermentation — has made this seasonality unnecessary, Koreans continue to consume kimchi according to traditional seasonal preferences.[15]

Dongchimi (동치미) is largely served during winter.
Dongchimi (동치미) is largely served during winter.
Spring
After a long period of consuming gimjang kimchi (hangul: 김장김치) during the winter, fresh potherbs and vegetables were used to make kimchi. These kinds of kimchi were not fermented or even stored for long periods of time but were consumed fresh.

Summer
Summer radishes and cucumbers are summer vegetables made into kimchi, yeolmu kimchi (hangul: 열무김치) which is eaten in several bites. Brined fish or shellfish can be added, and freshly ground dried chili peppers are often used.

Autumn
Baechu kimchi is prepared by inserting blended stuffing materials, called sok (literally inside), between layers of salted leaves of uncut, whole Napa cabbage. The ingredients of sok (hangul: 속) can vary, depending on the different regions and weather conditions. Generally, baechu kimchi used to have a strong salty flavor until the late 1960s when a large amount of myeolchijeot or saeujeot had been used.

Gogumasoon Kimchi is made of sweet potato stems. In the summer months when they often eat kimchi made materials lack access until the fall. Mangeun not only it can be eaten in a day or 2 to 3 million. Make stripped the bark. Create a lot of good broth is delicious.

Winter
Traditionally, the greatest varieties of kimchi were available during the winter. In preparation for the long winter months, many types of kimjang kimchi (hangul: 김장 김치) were prepared in early winter and stored in the ground in large kimchi pots. Today, many city residents use modern kimchi refrigerators offering precise temperature controls to store kimjang kimchi. November and December are traditionally when people begin to make kimchi; women often gather together in each other's homes to help with winter kimchi preparations.[16] "Baechu kimchi" is made with salted baechu filled with thin strips of radish, parsley, pine nuts, pears, chestnuts, shredded red pepper, manna lichen (석이버섯), garlic, and ginger.

Nutrition and health
Kimchi jjigae
Kimchi jjigae
South Koreans consume 40 pounds (18 kg) of kimchi per person annually,[8] and many credit their industrious energy as a people, and its impact on their nation's rapid economic growth, in part to eating the dish.[10] Kimchi is made of various vegetables and contains a high concentration of dietary fiber,[17][18] while being low in calories. One serving also provides over 50% of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C and carotene. Most types of kimchi contain onions, garlic, ginger, and chilli peppers, all of which are salutary. The vegetables used in kimchi also contribute to its overall nutritional value. Kimchi is rich in vitamin A, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), calcium, and iron,[19][20] and contains lactic acid bacteria, among those the typical species Lactobacillus kimchii.[21][22][23]

During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Asia many people believed that kimchi could protect against infection and while there was no scientific evidence to support this belief, kimchi sales rose by 40%.[24][8]

Nutritional composition of typical kimchi[25]
Nutrients per 100 g Nutrients per 100 g
Food energy 32 kcal Moisture 88.4 g
Crude protein 2.0 g Crude lipid 0.6 g
Total sugar 1.3 g Crude fiber 1.2 g
Crude ash 0.5 g Calcium 45 mg
Phosphorus 28 mg Vitamin A 492 IU
Vitamin B1 0.03 mg Vitamin B2 0.06 mg
Niacin 2.1 mg Vitamin C 21 mg
Dishes made with Kimchi
Kimchijeon
Kimchijeon
Kimchi can be made with white radishes, mustard greens, scallions, or cucumbers. Kimchi is known to be a traditional side dish as it is almost always served along with other side dishes in most Korean family households and restaurants. Kimchi can be eaten alone or with white rice, but it is also included in recipes of other traditional dishes, including porridges, soups, and rice cakes. (Jung, C.) Kimchi is also the basis for many derivative dishes such as kimchi stew (김치찌개; kimchi jjigae), kimchi pancake (김치부침개; kimchijeon), kimchi soup (김칫국; kimchiguk), and kimchi fried rice (김치볶음밥; kimchi bokkeumbap).

Recent history
1996 Japanese kimchi dispute
In 1996, Korea protested against Japanese commercial production of "kimchi" arguing that the Japanese-produced product (kimuchi) was different from kimchi (in particular, that it was not fermented). Korea lobbied for an international standard from the Codex Alimentarius, an organization associated with the World Health Organization that defines voluntary standards for food preparation for international trade purposes.[8][26] In 2001, the Codex Alimentarius published a voluntary standard defining kimchi as "a fermented food that uses salted napa cabbages as its main ingredient mixed with seasonings, and goes through a lactic acid production process at a low temperature", but which did not specify a minimum amount of fermentation nor forbid the use of any additives.[27][third-party source needed]

2010 kimchi ingredient price crisis
Due to heavy rainfall shortening the harvesting time for cabbage and other main ingredients for kimchi in 2010, the price of kimchi ingredients and kimchi itself rose greatly. Korean newspapers described the rise in prices as a national crisis. Some restaurants stopped offering kimchi as a free side dish, which The New York Times compared to an American hamburger restaurant no longer offering free ketchup.[16] In response to the Kimchi price crisis, the South Korean government announced the temporary reduction of tariffs on imported cabbage to coincide with the Kimjang season.[28]

2012 Effective ban of Korean kimchi exports to China
Since 2012, the Chinese government has effectively banned Korean kimchi exports to China through government regulations. Ignoring the standards of Kimchi outlied by the Codex Alimentarius, China defined kimchi as a derivative of one of its own cuisines, called Pao cai.[1] However, due to significantly different preparation techniques from Pao cai, kimchi has significantly more lactic acid bacteria through its fermentation process, which exceeds China's regulations.[2] Since 2012, commercial exports of Korean kimchi to China has reached zero, the only minor amounts of exports accounting for Korean kimchi exhibition events held in China.[3]

2013 Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
Kimjang, the tradition of making and sharing of kimchi that usually takes place in late autumn, was added to the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The practice of Kimjang reaffirms Korean identity and strengthens family cooperation. Kimjang is also an important reminder for many Koreans that human communities need to live in harmony with nature.[29]

Gallery
Preparation for making kimchi Preparation for making kimchi
Seokryu kimchi named after its pomegranate-like shapeSeokryu kimchi named after its pomegranate-like shape
Jang kimchi, pickled with soy sauceJang kimchi, pickled with soy sauce
Displayed manufactured kimchi Displayed manufactured kimchi
PreviousNext
See also
References
Further reading
External links
Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kimchi.
Kimchi
Authority control
Categories
This page is based on a Wikipedia article (read/edit) and qw.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.
Cover photo is available under CC BY 2.0 License. Credit: by elle_rigby (see original file).

Is unnecessary?

Oddity wrote:

What does it smell like though? Like sauerkraut perhaps?

Nwewinit wrote:

What the hell do either of xxohioanxx and oddity's comments have to do with the lightest valve caps. Koorean enginer or not, I believe nothing you have written about kimchi. You used wikipedia as a source. Something smells fishy to me. Point proven, case closed

Three Kingdoms of Korea
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Three Kingdoms of Korea

Map of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century.
Korean name
Hangul 삼국시대
Hanja 三國時代
Revised Romanization Samguk-sidae
McCune–Reischauer Samguk-sidae
Three Kingdoms of Korea
Chosŏn'gŭl 삼국시기
Hancha 三國時期
Revised Romanization Samguk-sigi
McCune–Reischauer Samguk-sigi
Other name
Chosŏn'gŭl 세나라시기
Revised Romanization Senara-sigi
McCune–Reischauer Senara-sigi
This article contains Korean text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hangul and hanja.
The Three Kingdoms of Korea (Hangul: 삼국시대; hanja: 三國時代) refer to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium. The Three Kingdoms period ran from 57 BC until Silla's triumph over Goguryeo in 668,[1] which marked the beginning of the North and South States period of Unified Silla in the South and Balhae in the North.

The earlier part of this period, before the three states developed into full-fledged kingdoms, is sometimes called Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea.

Background
The name "Three Kingdoms" was used in the titles of the histories Samguk Sagi (12th century) and Samguk Yusa (13th century), and should not be confused with the earlier Chinese Three Kingdoms.

The Three Kingdoms were founded after the fall of Gojoseon, and gradually conquered and absorbed various other small states and confederacies. After the fall of Gojoseon, the Han dynasty established four commanderies in present Liaoning.[2] Three fell quickly to the Samhan, and the last was destroyed by Goguryeo in 313.

The nascent precursors of Baekje and Silla expanded within the web of statelets during the Proto Three Kingdoms Period, and Goguryeo conquered neighboring state like Buyeo in Manchuria and chiefdoms in Okjeo, Dongye which occupied the northeastern Korean peninsula. The three polities made the transition from walled-town state to full-fledged state-level societies between 1st - 3rd century AD.

All three kingdoms shared a similar culture and language. Their original religions appear to have been shamanistic, but they were increasingly influenced by Chinese culture, particularly Confucianism and Taoism. In the 4th century, Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula and spread rapidly, briefly becoming the official religion of all three kingdoms.

Goguryeo
Main article: Goguryeo
Part of a series on the
History of Korea

Prehistory
Jeulmun Mumun
Ancient
Gojoseon Jin state
Proto–Three Kingdoms
Buyeo Goguryeo Okjeo Dongye Samhan Ma Byeon Jin
Four Commanderies of Han
Three Kingdoms
Goguryeo 37 BC–668 AD
Baekje 18 BC–660 AD
Silla 57 BC–935 AD
Gaya confederacy 42–562
North–South States
Unified Silla 668–935
Balhae 698–926
Later Three Kingdoms
Later Baekje 892–936
Taebong (Later Goguryeo) 901–918
Silla 57 BC–935 AD
Unitary dynastic period
Goryeo 918–1392
Joseon 1392–1897
Korean Empire 1897–1910
Colonial period
Japanese rule 1910–45
Provisional Government 1919–48
Division of Korea
Military Governments 1945–48
North Korea 1948–present
South Korea 1948–present
By topic
Art Language Military Monarchs Naval Science and technology
Timeline

Korea portal
Goguryeo tomb mural
Goguryeo tomb mural
Goguryeo emerged on the north and south banks of the Yalu (Amrok) River, in the wake of Gojoseon's fall. The first mention of Goguryeo in Chinese records dates from 75 BC in reference to a commandery established by the Chinese Han dynasty, although even earlier mentions of "Guri" may be of the same state. Evidence indicates Goguryeo was the most advanced, and likely the first established, of the three kingdoms.

Goguryeo, eventually the largest of the three kingdoms, had several capitals in alternation: two capitals in the upper Yalu area, and later Nangrang (樂浪: Lelang in Chinese) which is now part of Pyongyang. At the beginning, the state was located on the border with China; it gradually expanded into Manchuria and destroyed the Chinese Lelang commandery in 313. The cultural influence of the Chinese continued as Buddhism was adopted as the official religion in 372.

The Empire was at its zenith in the fifth century during the rule of King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu in their campaign against China in Manchuria. For the next century or so, Goguryeo was the dominant empire in the Korean peninsula.[3] Goguryeo eventually occupied the Liaodong Plains in Manchuria and today's Seoul area. Goguryeo controlled not only Koreans but also Chinese and other Tungusic tribes in Manchuria and North Korea. After the establishment of the Sui Dynasty and later the Tang Dynasty in China, the empire continued to suffer from Chinese attacks until conquered by an allied Silla–Tang forces in 668.

Baekje
Main article: Baekje
Baekje was founded as a member of the Mahan confederacy. Two sons of Goguryeo's founder are recorded to have fled a succession conflict, to establish Baekje around the present Seoul area.

Baekje absorbed or conquered other Mahan chiefdoms and, at its peak in the 4th century, controlled most of the western Korean peninsula. Under attack from Goguryeo, the capital moved south to Ungjin (present-day Gongju) and later further south to Sabi (present-day Buyeo).

Baekje exerted its political influence on Tamna, a kingdom that ruled Jeju Island. Baekje maintained a close relationship with and extracted tribute from Tamna. Baekje's religious and artistic culture influenced Goguryeo and Silla.

Buddhism was introduced to Baekje in 384 from Goguryeo, which Baekje welcomed.[3] Later, Baekje played a fundamental role in transmitting cultural developments, including Chinese characters and Buddhism, into ancient Japan.[3][4]

Silla
Bangasayusang, 7th century
Bangasayusang, 7th century
Main article: Silla
According to Korean records, in 57 BC, Seorabeol (or Saro[disambiguation needed], later Silla) in the southeast of the peninsula unified and expanded the confederation of city-states known as Jinhan. Although Samguk Sagi records that Silla was the earliest-founded of the three kingdoms, other written and archaeological records indicate that Silla was likely the last of the three to establish a centralized government.

Renamed from Saro to Silla in 503, the kingdom annexed the Gaya confederacy (which in turn had absorbed Byeonhan earlier) in the first half of the 6th century. Goguryeo and Baekje responded by forming an alliance. To cope with invasions from Goguryeo and Baekje, Silla deepened its relations with the Tang Dynasty, with her newly gained access to the Yellow Sea making direct contact with the Tang possible. After the conquest of Goguryeo and Baekje with her Tang allies, the Silla kingdom drove the Tang forces out of the peninsula and occupied the lands south of Pyongyang.

The capital of Silla was Seorabeol (now Gyeongju; "Seorabeol", "서라벌" in Hangul or "徐羅伐" in Hanja, is hypothesized to have been the ancient Korean term for "capital"). Buddhism became the official religion in 528. The remaining material culture from the kingdom of Silla including unique gold metalwork shows influence from the northern nomadic steppes, differentiating it from the culture of Goguryeo and Baekje where Chinese influence was more pronounced.

Other states
Other smaller states or regions existed in Korea before and during this period:

Gaya confederacy, until annexed by Silla
Dongye, Okjeo, and Buyeo, all three conquered by Goguryeo
Usan (Ulleung-do) tributary of Silla
Tamna (Jeju-do) tributary of Baekje
A Gaya soldier.
A Gaya soldier.
End of the Three Kingdoms Period
Allied with China under the Tang dynasty, Silla conquered Goguryeo in 668, after having already conquered Gaya in 562 and Baekje in 660, thus ushering in the North-South states period with Later Silla to the south and Balhae to the north, when Dae Jo-young, a former Goguryeo military officer, revolted Tang Chinese rule and began reconquering former Goguryeo territories.

Archaeological perspectives on the Three Kingdoms of Korea
An unusual drinking vessel excavated from a Gaya mounded burial.
An unusual drinking vessel excavated from a Gaya mounded burial.
Archaeologists use theoretical guidelines derived from anthropology, ethnology, analogy, and ethnohistory to the concept of what defines a state-level society. This is different from the concept of state (guk or Sino[disambiguation needed] ko: 國, walled-town state, etc.) in the discipline of Korean History. In anthropological archaeology the presence of urban centres (especially capitals), monumental architecture, craft specialization and standardization of production, ostentatious burials, writing or recording systems, bureaucracy, demonstrated political control of geographical areas that are usually larger in area than a single river valley, etc. make up some of these correlates that define states.[5] Among the archaeology sites dating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, hundreds of cemeteries with thousands of burials have been excavated. The vast majority of archaeological evidence of the Three Kingdoms Period of Korea consists of burials, but since the 1990s there has been a great increase in the archaeological excavations of ancient industrial production sites, roads, palace grounds and elite precincts, ceremonial sites, commoner households, and fortresses due to the boom in salvage archaeology in South Korea.

Rhee and Choi hypothesize that a mix of internal developments and external factors lead to the emergence of state-level societies in Korea.[6] A number of archaeologists including Kang demonstrate the role of frequent warfare in the development of peninsular states.[7][8][9]

Formation of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje States (c. 0 – 300/400 AD)

Historic example of a climbing kiln similar to those that were excavated from Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri as early as the late Three Kingdoms Period, c. 600.
Historic example of a climbing kiln similar to those that were excavated from Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri as early as the late Three Kingdoms Period, c. 600.
Some individual correlates of complex societies are found in the chiefdoms of Korea that date back to c. 700 BC (e.g. see Igeum-dong, Songguk-ri).[6][10] However, the best evidence from the archaeological record in Korea indicates that states formed between 300 BC and 300/400 AD.[11][12][13][14][15][16] However, archaeologists are not prepared to suggest that this means there were states in the BC era. The correlates of state-level societies did not develop as a package, but rather in spurts and starts and at various points in time. It was some time between 100–400 AD that individual correlates of state societies had developed to a sufficient number and scale that state-level societies can be confidently identified using archaeological data.

Evidence from burials

Lee Sung-joo analyzed variability in many of the elite cemeteries of the territories of Silla and Gaya polities and found that as late as the 2nd century there was intra-cemetery variation in the distribution of prestige grave goods, but there was an absence of hierarchical differences on a regional scale between cemeteries. Near the end of the 2nd century AD, interior space in elite burials increased in size, and wooden chamber burial construction techniques were increasingly used by elites. In the 3rd century, a pattern developed in which single elite cemeteries that were the highest in status compared to all the other cemeteries were built. Such cemeteries were established at high elevations along ridgelines and on hilltops. Furthermore, the uppermost elite were buried in large-scale tombs established at the highest point of a given cemetery.[17] Cemeteries with 'uppermost elite' mounded burials such as Okseong-ri, Yangdong-ri, Daeseong-dong, and Bokcheon-dong display this pattern.

Roof tiles excavated from Goguryeo archaeological sites in the Han River valley, from National Museum of Korea.
Roof tiles excavated from Goguryeo archaeological sites in the Han River valley, from National Museum of Korea.
Evidence from factory-scale production of pottery and roof-tiles

Lee Sung-joo proposed that, in addition to the development of regional political hierarchies as seen through analysis of burials, variation in types of pottery production gradually disappeared and full-time specialization was the only recognizable kind of pottery production from the end of the 4th century A.D. At the same time the production centers for pottery became highly centralized and vessels became standardized.[17]

Centralisation and elite control of production is demonstrated by the results of the archaeological excavations at Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ni in Gyeongju. These sites are part of what was an interconnected and sprawling ancient industrial complex on the northeast outskirts of the Silla capital. Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri are an example of the large-scale of specialized factory-style production in the Three Kingdoms and Unified Silla Periods. The site was excavated in the late 1990s, and archaeologists found the remains of many production features such as pottery kilns, roof-tile kilns, charcoal kilns, as well as the remains of buildings and workshops associated with production.

Capital cities, elite precincts, and monumental architecture

Since the establishment of Goguryeo, its early history is well attested archaeologically: The first and second capital cities, Jolbon and Gungnae city, located in and around today's Ji'an, Jilin. In 2004, the site was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Since 1976, continuing archaeological excavations concentrated in the southeastern part of modern Gyeongju have revealed parts of the so-called Silla Wanggyeong (Silla royal capital). A number of excavations over the years have revealed temples such as Hwangnyongsa, Bunhwangsa, Heungryunsa, and 30 other sites. Signs of Baekje's capitals have also been excavated at the Mongchon Fortress and the Pungnap Fortress in Seoul.

See also
Further reading
References
External links
Categories
This page is based on a Wikipedia article (read/edit) and qw.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.
Cover photo is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 License. Credit: (see original file).

|

YOU AVIN A LAUGH M8?
┬┴┬┴┤ ( ͡° ͜ʖ├┬┴┬┴
The Trailest Bike On Vital

6/25/2015 9:58 PM

Oddity wrote:

What does it smell like though? Like sauerkraut perhaps?

Nwewinit wrote:

What the hell do either of xxohioanxx and oddity's comments have to do with the lightest valve caps. Koorean enginer or not, I believe nothing you have written about kimchi. You used wikipedia as a source. Something smells fishy to me. Point proven, case closed

Xxohioanxx wrote:

Three Kingdoms of Korea
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Three Kingdoms of Korea

Map of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century.
Korean name
Hangul 삼국시대
Hanja 三國時代
Revised Romanization Samguk-sidae
McCune–Reischauer Samguk-sidae
Three Kingdoms of Korea
Chosŏn'gŭl 삼국시기
Hancha 三國時期
Revised Romanization Samguk-sigi
McCune–Reischauer Samguk-sigi
Other name
Chosŏn'gŭl 세나라시기
Revised Romanization Senara-sigi
McCune–Reischauer Senara-sigi
This article contains Korean text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hangul and hanja.
The Three Kingdoms of Korea (Hangul: 삼국시대; hanja: 三國時代) refer to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium. The Three Kingdoms period ran from 57 BC until Silla's triumph over Goguryeo in 668,[1] which marked the beginning of the North and South States period of Unified Silla in the South and Balhae in the North.

The earlier part of this period, before the three states developed into full-fledged kingdoms, is sometimes called Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea.

Background
The name "Three Kingdoms" was used in the titles of the histories Samguk Sagi (12th century) and Samguk Yusa (13th century), and should not be confused with the earlier Chinese Three Kingdoms.

The Three Kingdoms were founded after the fall of Gojoseon, and gradually conquered and absorbed various other small states and confederacies. After the fall of Gojoseon, the Han dynasty established four commanderies in present Liaoning.[2] Three fell quickly to the Samhan, and the last was destroyed by Goguryeo in 313.

The nascent precursors of Baekje and Silla expanded within the web of statelets during the Proto Three Kingdoms Period, and Goguryeo conquered neighboring state like Buyeo in Manchuria and chiefdoms in Okjeo, Dongye which occupied the northeastern Korean peninsula. The three polities made the transition from walled-town state to full-fledged state-level societies between 1st - 3rd century AD.

All three kingdoms shared a similar culture and language. Their original religions appear to have been shamanistic, but they were increasingly influenced by Chinese culture, particularly Confucianism and Taoism. In the 4th century, Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula and spread rapidly, briefly becoming the official religion of all three kingdoms.

Goguryeo
Main article: Goguryeo
Part of a series on the
History of Korea

Prehistory
Jeulmun Mumun
Ancient
Gojoseon Jin state
Proto–Three Kingdoms
Buyeo Goguryeo Okjeo Dongye Samhan Ma Byeon Jin
Four Commanderies of Han
Three Kingdoms
Goguryeo 37 BC–668 AD
Baekje 18 BC–660 AD
Silla 57 BC–935 AD
Gaya confederacy 42–562
North–South States
Unified Silla 668–935
Balhae 698–926
Later Three Kingdoms
Later Baekje 892–936
Taebong (Later Goguryeo) 901–918
Silla 57 BC–935 AD
Unitary dynastic period
Goryeo 918–1392
Joseon 1392–1897
Korean Empire 1897–1910
Colonial period
Japanese rule 1910–45
Provisional Government 1919–48
Division of Korea
Military Governments 1945–48
North Korea 1948–present
South Korea 1948–present
By topic
Art Language Military Monarchs Naval Science and technology
Timeline

Korea portal
Goguryeo tomb mural
Goguryeo tomb mural
Goguryeo emerged on the north and south banks of the Yalu (Amrok) River, in the wake of Gojoseon's fall. The first mention of Goguryeo in Chinese records dates from 75 BC in reference to a commandery established by the Chinese Han dynasty, although even earlier mentions of "Guri" may be of the same state. Evidence indicates Goguryeo was the most advanced, and likely the first established, of the three kingdoms.

Goguryeo, eventually the largest of the three kingdoms, had several capitals in alternation: two capitals in the upper Yalu area, and later Nangrang (樂浪: Lelang in Chinese) which is now part of Pyongyang. At the beginning, the state was located on the border with China; it gradually expanded into Manchuria and destroyed the Chinese Lelang commandery in 313. The cultural influence of the Chinese continued as Buddhism was adopted as the official religion in 372.

The Empire was at its zenith in the fifth century during the rule of King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu in their campaign against China in Manchuria. For the next century or so, Goguryeo was the dominant empire in the Korean peninsula.[3] Goguryeo eventually occupied the Liaodong Plains in Manchuria and today's Seoul area. Goguryeo controlled not only Koreans but also Chinese and other Tungusic tribes in Manchuria and North Korea. After the establishment of the Sui Dynasty and later the Tang Dynasty in China, the empire continued to suffer from Chinese attacks until conquered by an allied Silla–Tang forces in 668.

Baekje
Main article: Baekje
Baekje was founded as a member of the Mahan confederacy. Two sons of Goguryeo's founder are recorded to have fled a succession conflict, to establish Baekje around the present Seoul area.

Baekje absorbed or conquered other Mahan chiefdoms and, at its peak in the 4th century, controlled most of the western Korean peninsula. Under attack from Goguryeo, the capital moved south to Ungjin (present-day Gongju) and later further south to Sabi (present-day Buyeo).

Baekje exerted its political influence on Tamna, a kingdom that ruled Jeju Island. Baekje maintained a close relationship with and extracted tribute from Tamna. Baekje's religious and artistic culture influenced Goguryeo and Silla.

Buddhism was introduced to Baekje in 384 from Goguryeo, which Baekje welcomed.[3] Later, Baekje played a fundamental role in transmitting cultural developments, including Chinese characters and Buddhism, into ancient Japan.[3][4]

Silla
Bangasayusang, 7th century
Bangasayusang, 7th century
Main article: Silla
According to Korean records, in 57 BC, Seorabeol (or Saro[disambiguation needed], later Silla) in the southeast of the peninsula unified and expanded the confederation of city-states known as Jinhan. Although Samguk Sagi records that Silla was the earliest-founded of the three kingdoms, other written and archaeological records indicate that Silla was likely the last of the three to establish a centralized government.

Renamed from Saro to Silla in 503, the kingdom annexed the Gaya confederacy (which in turn had absorbed Byeonhan earlier) in the first half of the 6th century. Goguryeo and Baekje responded by forming an alliance. To cope with invasions from Goguryeo and Baekje, Silla deepened its relations with the Tang Dynasty, with her newly gained access to the Yellow Sea making direct contact with the Tang possible. After the conquest of Goguryeo and Baekje with her Tang allies, the Silla kingdom drove the Tang forces out of the peninsula and occupied the lands south of Pyongyang.

The capital of Silla was Seorabeol (now Gyeongju; "Seorabeol", "서라벌" in Hangul or "徐羅伐" in Hanja, is hypothesized to have been the ancient Korean term for "capital"). Buddhism became the official religion in 528. The remaining material culture from the kingdom of Silla including unique gold metalwork shows influence from the northern nomadic steppes, differentiating it from the culture of Goguryeo and Baekje where Chinese influence was more pronounced.

Other states
Other smaller states or regions existed in Korea before and during this period:

Gaya confederacy, until annexed by Silla
Dongye, Okjeo, and Buyeo, all three conquered by Goguryeo
Usan (Ulleung-do) tributary of Silla
Tamna (Jeju-do) tributary of Baekje
A Gaya soldier.
A Gaya soldier.
End of the Three Kingdoms Period
Allied with China under the Tang dynasty, Silla conquered Goguryeo in 668, after having already conquered Gaya in 562 and Baekje in 660, thus ushering in the North-South states period with Later Silla to the south and Balhae to the north, when Dae Jo-young, a former Goguryeo military officer, revolted Tang Chinese rule and began reconquering former Goguryeo territories.

Archaeological perspectives on the Three Kingdoms of Korea
An unusual drinking vessel excavated from a Gaya mounded burial.
An unusual drinking vessel excavated from a Gaya mounded burial.
Archaeologists use theoretical guidelines derived from anthropology, ethnology, analogy, and ethnohistory to the concept of what defines a state-level society. This is different from the concept of state (guk or Sino[disambiguation needed] ko: 國, walled-town state, etc.) in the discipline of Korean History. In anthropological archaeology the presence of urban centres (especially capitals), monumental architecture, craft specialization and standardization of production, ostentatious burials, writing or recording systems, bureaucracy, demonstrated political control of geographical areas that are usually larger in area than a single river valley, etc. make up some of these correlates that define states.[5] Among the archaeology sites dating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, hundreds of cemeteries with thousands of burials have been excavated. The vast majority of archaeological evidence of the Three Kingdoms Period of Korea consists of burials, but since the 1990s there has been a great increase in the archaeological excavations of ancient industrial production sites, roads, palace grounds and elite precincts, ceremonial sites, commoner households, and fortresses due to the boom in salvage archaeology in South Korea.

Rhee and Choi hypothesize that a mix of internal developments and external factors lead to the emergence of state-level societies in Korea.[6] A number of archaeologists including Kang demonstrate the role of frequent warfare in the development of peninsular states.[7][8][9]

Formation of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje States (c. 0 – 300/400 AD)

Historic example of a climbing kiln similar to those that were excavated from Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri as early as the late Three Kingdoms Period, c. 600.
Historic example of a climbing kiln similar to those that were excavated from Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri as early as the late Three Kingdoms Period, c. 600.
Some individual correlates of complex societies are found in the chiefdoms of Korea that date back to c. 700 BC (e.g. see Igeum-dong, Songguk-ri).[6][10] However, the best evidence from the archaeological record in Korea indicates that states formed between 300 BC and 300/400 AD.[11][12][13][14][15][16] However, archaeologists are not prepared to suggest that this means there were states in the BC era. The correlates of state-level societies did not develop as a package, but rather in spurts and starts and at various points in time. It was some time between 100–400 AD that individual correlates of state societies had developed to a sufficient number and scale that state-level societies can be confidently identified using archaeological data.

Evidence from burials

Lee Sung-joo analyzed variability in many of the elite cemeteries of the territories of Silla and Gaya polities and found that as late as the 2nd century there was intra-cemetery variation in the distribution of prestige grave goods, but there was an absence of hierarchical differences on a regional scale between cemeteries. Near the end of the 2nd century AD, interior space in elite burials increased in size, and wooden chamber burial construction techniques were increasingly used by elites. In the 3rd century, a pattern developed in which single elite cemeteries that were the highest in status compared to all the other cemeteries were built. Such cemeteries were established at high elevations along ridgelines and on hilltops. Furthermore, the uppermost elite were buried in large-scale tombs established at the highest point of a given cemetery.[17] Cemeteries with 'uppermost elite' mounded burials such as Okseong-ri, Yangdong-ri, Daeseong-dong, and Bokcheon-dong display this pattern.

Roof tiles excavated from Goguryeo archaeological sites in the Han River valley, from National Museum of Korea.
Roof tiles excavated from Goguryeo archaeological sites in the Han River valley, from National Museum of Korea.
Evidence from factory-scale production of pottery and roof-tiles

Lee Sung-joo proposed that, in addition to the development of regional political hierarchies as seen through analysis of burials, variation in types of pottery production gradually disappeared and full-time specialization was the only recognizable kind of pottery production from the end of the 4th century A.D. At the same time the production centers for pottery became highly centralized and vessels became standardized.[17]

Centralisation and elite control of production is demonstrated by the results of the archaeological excavations at Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ni in Gyeongju. These sites are part of what was an interconnected and sprawling ancient industrial complex on the northeast outskirts of the Silla capital. Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri are an example of the large-scale of specialized factory-style production in the Three Kingdoms and Unified Silla Periods. The site was excavated in the late 1990s, and archaeologists found the remains of many production features such as pottery kilns, roof-tile kilns, charcoal kilns, as well as the remains of buildings and workshops associated with production.

Capital cities, elite precincts, and monumental architecture

Since the establishment of Goguryeo, its early history is well attested archaeologically: The first and second capital cities, Jolbon and Gungnae city, located in and around today's Ji'an, Jilin. In 2004, the site was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Since 1976, continuing archaeological excavations concentrated in the southeastern part of modern Gyeongju have revealed parts of the so-called Silla Wanggyeong (Silla royal capital). A number of excavations over the years have revealed temples such as Hwangnyongsa, Bunhwangsa, Heungryunsa, and 30 other sites. Signs of Baekje's capitals have also been excavated at the Mongchon Fortress and the Pungnap Fortress in Seoul.

See also
Further reading
References
External links
Categories
This page is based on a Wikipedia article (read/edit) and qw.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.
Cover photo is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 License. Credit: (see original file).

Photo

|

6/25/2015 10:04 PM

Nwewinit wrote:

What the hell do either of xxohioanxx and oddity's comments have to do with the lightest valve caps. Koorean enginer or not, I believe nothing you have written about kimchi. You used wikipedia as a source. Something smells fishy to me. Point proven, case closed

Xxohioanxx wrote:

Three Kingdoms of Korea
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Three Kingdoms of Korea

Map of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century.
Korean name
Hangul 삼국시대
Hanja 三國時代
Revised Romanization Samguk-sidae
McCune–Reischauer Samguk-sidae
Three Kingdoms of Korea
Chosŏn'gŭl 삼국시기
Hancha 三國時期
Revised Romanization Samguk-sigi
McCune–Reischauer Samguk-sigi
Other name
Chosŏn'gŭl 세나라시기
Revised Romanization Senara-sigi
McCune–Reischauer Senara-sigi
This article contains Korean text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hangul and hanja.
The Three Kingdoms of Korea (Hangul: 삼국시대; hanja: 三國時代) refer to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium. The Three Kingdoms period ran from 57 BC until Silla's triumph over Goguryeo in 668,[1] which marked the beginning of the North and South States period of Unified Silla in the South and Balhae in the North.

The earlier part of this period, before the three states developed into full-fledged kingdoms, is sometimes called Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea.

Background
The name "Three Kingdoms" was used in the titles of the histories Samguk Sagi (12th century) and Samguk Yusa (13th century), and should not be confused with the earlier Chinese Three Kingdoms.

The Three Kingdoms were founded after the fall of Gojoseon, and gradually conquered and absorbed various other small states and confederacies. After the fall of Gojoseon, the Han dynasty established four commanderies in present Liaoning.[2] Three fell quickly to the Samhan, and the last was destroyed by Goguryeo in 313.

The nascent precursors of Baekje and Silla expanded within the web of statelets during the Proto Three Kingdoms Period, and Goguryeo conquered neighboring state like Buyeo in Manchuria and chiefdoms in Okjeo, Dongye which occupied the northeastern Korean peninsula. The three polities made the transition from walled-town state to full-fledged state-level societies between 1st - 3rd century AD.

All three kingdoms shared a similar culture and language. Their original religions appear to have been shamanistic, but they were increasingly influenced by Chinese culture, particularly Confucianism and Taoism. In the 4th century, Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula and spread rapidly, briefly becoming the official religion of all three kingdoms.

Goguryeo
Main article: Goguryeo
Part of a series on the
History of Korea

Prehistory
Jeulmun Mumun
Ancient
Gojoseon Jin state
Proto–Three Kingdoms
Buyeo Goguryeo Okjeo Dongye Samhan Ma Byeon Jin
Four Commanderies of Han
Three Kingdoms
Goguryeo 37 BC–668 AD
Baekje 18 BC–660 AD
Silla 57 BC–935 AD
Gaya confederacy 42–562
North–South States
Unified Silla 668–935
Balhae 698–926
Later Three Kingdoms
Later Baekje 892–936
Taebong (Later Goguryeo) 901–918
Silla 57 BC–935 AD
Unitary dynastic period
Goryeo 918–1392
Joseon 1392–1897
Korean Empire 1897–1910
Colonial period
Japanese rule 1910–45
Provisional Government 1919–48
Division of Korea
Military Governments 1945–48
North Korea 1948–present
South Korea 1948–present
By topic
Art Language Military Monarchs Naval Science and technology
Timeline

Korea portal
Goguryeo tomb mural
Goguryeo tomb mural
Goguryeo emerged on the north and south banks of the Yalu (Amrok) River, in the wake of Gojoseon's fall. The first mention of Goguryeo in Chinese records dates from 75 BC in reference to a commandery established by the Chinese Han dynasty, although even earlier mentions of "Guri" may be of the same state. Evidence indicates Goguryeo was the most advanced, and likely the first established, of the three kingdoms.

Goguryeo, eventually the largest of the three kingdoms, had several capitals in alternation: two capitals in the upper Yalu area, and later Nangrang (樂浪: Lelang in Chinese) which is now part of Pyongyang. At the beginning, the state was located on the border with China; it gradually expanded into Manchuria and destroyed the Chinese Lelang commandery in 313. The cultural influence of the Chinese continued as Buddhism was adopted as the official religion in 372.

The Empire was at its zenith in the fifth century during the rule of King Gwanggaeto the Great and his son King Jangsu in their campaign against China in Manchuria. For the next century or so, Goguryeo was the dominant empire in the Korean peninsula.[3] Goguryeo eventually occupied the Liaodong Plains in Manchuria and today's Seoul area. Goguryeo controlled not only Koreans but also Chinese and other Tungusic tribes in Manchuria and North Korea. After the establishment of the Sui Dynasty and later the Tang Dynasty in China, the empire continued to suffer from Chinese attacks until conquered by an allied Silla–Tang forces in 668.

Baekje
Main article: Baekje
Baekje was founded as a member of the Mahan confederacy. Two sons of Goguryeo's founder are recorded to have fled a succession conflict, to establish Baekje around the present Seoul area.

Baekje absorbed or conquered other Mahan chiefdoms and, at its peak in the 4th century, controlled most of the western Korean peninsula. Under attack from Goguryeo, the capital moved south to Ungjin (present-day Gongju) and later further south to Sabi (present-day Buyeo).

Baekje exerted its political influence on Tamna, a kingdom that ruled Jeju Island. Baekje maintained a close relationship with and extracted tribute from Tamna. Baekje's religious and artistic culture influenced Goguryeo and Silla.

Buddhism was introduced to Baekje in 384 from Goguryeo, which Baekje welcomed.[3] Later, Baekje played a fundamental role in transmitting cultural developments, including Chinese characters and Buddhism, into ancient Japan.[3][4]

Silla
Bangasayusang, 7th century
Bangasayusang, 7th century
Main article: Silla
According to Korean records, in 57 BC, Seorabeol (or Saro[disambiguation needed], later Silla) in the southeast of the peninsula unified and expanded the confederation of city-states known as Jinhan. Although Samguk Sagi records that Silla was the earliest-founded of the three kingdoms, other written and archaeological records indicate that Silla was likely the last of the three to establish a centralized government.

Renamed from Saro to Silla in 503, the kingdom annexed the Gaya confederacy (which in turn had absorbed Byeonhan earlier) in the first half of the 6th century. Goguryeo and Baekje responded by forming an alliance. To cope with invasions from Goguryeo and Baekje, Silla deepened its relations with the Tang Dynasty, with her newly gained access to the Yellow Sea making direct contact with the Tang possible. After the conquest of Goguryeo and Baekje with her Tang allies, the Silla kingdom drove the Tang forces out of the peninsula and occupied the lands south of Pyongyang.

The capital of Silla was Seorabeol (now Gyeongju; "Seorabeol", "서라벌" in Hangul or "徐羅伐" in Hanja, is hypothesized to have been the ancient Korean term for "capital"). Buddhism became the official religion in 528. The remaining material culture from the kingdom of Silla including unique gold metalwork shows influence from the northern nomadic steppes, differentiating it from the culture of Goguryeo and Baekje where Chinese influence was more pronounced.

Other states
Other smaller states or regions existed in Korea before and during this period:

Gaya confederacy, until annexed by Silla
Dongye, Okjeo, and Buyeo, all three conquered by Goguryeo
Usan (Ulleung-do) tributary of Silla
Tamna (Jeju-do) tributary of Baekje
A Gaya soldier.
A Gaya soldier.
End of the Three Kingdoms Period
Allied with China under the Tang dynasty, Silla conquered Goguryeo in 668, after having already conquered Gaya in 562 and Baekje in 660, thus ushering in the North-South states period with Later Silla to the south and Balhae to the north, when Dae Jo-young, a former Goguryeo military officer, revolted Tang Chinese rule and began reconquering former Goguryeo territories.

Archaeological perspectives on the Three Kingdoms of Korea
An unusual drinking vessel excavated from a Gaya mounded burial.
An unusual drinking vessel excavated from a Gaya mounded burial.
Archaeologists use theoretical guidelines derived from anthropology, ethnology, analogy, and ethnohistory to the concept of what defines a state-level society. This is different from the concept of state (guk or Sino[disambiguation needed] ko: 國, walled-town state, etc.) in the discipline of Korean History. In anthropological archaeology the presence of urban centres (especially capitals), monumental architecture, craft specialization and standardization of production, ostentatious burials, writing or recording systems, bureaucracy, demonstrated political control of geographical areas that are usually larger in area than a single river valley, etc. make up some of these correlates that define states.[5] Among the archaeology sites dating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, hundreds of cemeteries with thousands of burials have been excavated. The vast majority of archaeological evidence of the Three Kingdoms Period of Korea consists of burials, but since the 1990s there has been a great increase in the archaeological excavations of ancient industrial production sites, roads, palace grounds and elite precincts, ceremonial sites, commoner households, and fortresses due to the boom in salvage archaeology in South Korea.

Rhee and Choi hypothesize that a mix of internal developments and external factors lead to the emergence of state-level societies in Korea.[6] A number of archaeologists including Kang demonstrate the role of frequent warfare in the development of peninsular states.[7][8][9]

Formation of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje States (c. 0 – 300/400 AD)

Historic example of a climbing kiln similar to those that were excavated from Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri as early as the late Three Kingdoms Period, c. 600.
Historic example of a climbing kiln similar to those that were excavated from Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri as early as the late Three Kingdoms Period, c. 600.
Some individual correlates of complex societies are found in the chiefdoms of Korea that date back to c. 700 BC (e.g. see Igeum-dong, Songguk-ri).[6][10] However, the best evidence from the archaeological record in Korea indicates that states formed between 300 BC and 300/400 AD.[11][12][13][14][15][16] However, archaeologists are not prepared to suggest that this means there were states in the BC era. The correlates of state-level societies did not develop as a package, but rather in spurts and starts and at various points in time. It was some time between 100–400 AD that individual correlates of state societies had developed to a sufficient number and scale that state-level societies can be confidently identified using archaeological data.

Evidence from burials

Lee Sung-joo analyzed variability in many of the elite cemeteries of the territories of Silla and Gaya polities and found that as late as the 2nd century there was intra-cemetery variation in the distribution of prestige grave goods, but there was an absence of hierarchical differences on a regional scale between cemeteries. Near the end of the 2nd century AD, interior space in elite burials increased in size, and wooden chamber burial construction techniques were increasingly used by elites. In the 3rd century, a pattern developed in which single elite cemeteries that were the highest in status compared to all the other cemeteries were built. Such cemeteries were established at high elevations along ridgelines and on hilltops. Furthermore, the uppermost elite were buried in large-scale tombs established at the highest point of a given cemetery.[17] Cemeteries with 'uppermost elite' mounded burials such as Okseong-ri, Yangdong-ri, Daeseong-dong, and Bokcheon-dong display this pattern.

Roof tiles excavated from Goguryeo archaeological sites in the Han River valley, from National Museum of Korea.
Roof tiles excavated from Goguryeo archaeological sites in the Han River valley, from National Museum of Korea.
Evidence from factory-scale production of pottery and roof-tiles

Lee Sung-joo proposed that, in addition to the development of regional political hierarchies as seen through analysis of burials, variation in types of pottery production gradually disappeared and full-time specialization was the only recognizable kind of pottery production from the end of the 4th century A.D. At the same time the production centers for pottery became highly centralized and vessels became standardized.[17]

Centralisation and elite control of production is demonstrated by the results of the archaeological excavations at Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ni in Gyeongju. These sites are part of what was an interconnected and sprawling ancient industrial complex on the northeast outskirts of the Silla capital. Songok-dong and Mulcheon-ri are an example of the large-scale of specialized factory-style production in the Three Kingdoms and Unified Silla Periods. The site was excavated in the late 1990s, and archaeologists found the remains of many production features such as pottery kilns, roof-tile kilns, charcoal kilns, as well as the remains of buildings and workshops associated with production.

Capital cities, elite precincts, and monumental architecture

Since the establishment of Goguryeo, its early history is well attested archaeologically: The first and second capital cities, Jolbon and Gungnae city, located in and around today's Ji'an, Jilin. In 2004, the site was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Since 1976, continuing archaeological excavations concentrated in the southeastern part of modern Gyeongju have revealed parts of the so-called Silla Wanggyeong (Silla royal capital). A number of excavations over the years have revealed temples such as Hwangnyongsa, Bunhwangsa, Heungryunsa, and 30 other sites. Signs of Baekje's capitals have also been excavated at the Mongchon Fortress and the Pungnap Fortress in Seoul.

See also
Further reading
References
External links
Categories
This page is based on a Wikipedia article (read/edit) and qw.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.
Cover photo is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 License. Credit: (see original file).

Nwewinit wrote: Photo

Korea
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Korea
한국 (S. Korean)
조선 (N. Korean)

Largest city Seoul
Language(s) Korean
Demonym Korean
Sovereign states North Korea
South Korea
Leaders
- President of the ROK Park Geun-hye
- Supreme Leader of the DPRK Kim Jong-un
Area
- Total 219,155 km2[1][2]
84,610 sq mi
- Water (%) 2.8
Population
- 2015 estimate 76,497,881
- Density 328.49/km2
850.7/sq mi
Currency North Korean won (₩)
South Korean won (₩)
Time zone KST (UTC+9)
ISO 3166 code KR/KP
This article contains Korean text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hangul and hanja.
Korea, called Hanguk (Korean: 한국; Hanja: 韓國) in South Korea and Chosŏn (Korean: 조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) in North Korea and elsewhere, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (aka Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) and South Korea (aka Republic of Korea, or ROK). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the East Sea.

Korea emerged as a singular political entity after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which were unified as Silla (57 BC – AD 935) under King Munmu. The united Silla was eventually succeeded by Goryeo in 935 at the end of the Later Three Kingdoms period. Goryeo, which gave name to the modern exonym "Korea", was a highly cultured state and created the Jikji in the 14th century. The invasions by the Mongolians in the 13th century, however, greatly weakened the nation, which forced it into vassalage. After the Mongol Empire's collapse, severe political strife followed. Goryeo eventually fell to an uprising led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1388.

The first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace and saw the creation of the Korean alphabet by King Sejong the Great in the 14th century and the increasing influence of Confucianism. During the later part of the dynasty, however, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. Despite attempts at modernization by the Korean Empire, in 1910, Korea was annexed by Japan and remained a part of Imperial Japan until the end of World War II in August 1945.

In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under U.S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-U.S. government in the South, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea and South Korea. This eventually led to war in 1950, which became the Korean War. The war did not produce a formalized peace treaty, a factor that contributes to the high tensions which continue to divide the peninsula.

Etymology
Main article: Names of Korea
See also: Korean romanization
"Korea" is the modern spelling of Corea, a name attested in English as early as 1614.[3] It is an exonym derived from Cauli, Marco Polo's transcription[4] of the Chinese 高麗 (simp. 高丽, MC Kawlej,[5] mod. Gāolì). This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo or Koryŏ (고려; 918–1392), which ruled most of the peninsula during the time of his travels. (Scholars who discount the historicity of Polo's account instead derive it via Persian variations of the same Chinese name.[6]) Goryeo's name was an homage to the earlier Goguryeo or Koguryo (고구려; 37 bc – ad 668), the northernmost of the Samkuk (the Three Kingdoms of Korea), which was officially known by the shortened form Goryeo after the 5th-century reign of King Jangsu. The original name was a combination of the adjective go ("high, lofty") with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either *Guru (溝樓, "walled city," inferred from some toponyms in Chinese historical documents) or *Gauri (가우리, "center"). With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and gradually grew in popularity;[3] its use in transcribing East Asian languages avoids the issues caused by the separate hard and soft Cs existing in English vocabulary derived from the Romance languages. The name Korea is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea.

In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk (한국, [haːnɡuk], lit. "country of the Han"). The name references the Samhan—Ma, Jin, and Byeon—who preceded the Three Kingdoms in the southern and central end of the peninsula during the 1st centuries bc and ad. Although written in Hanja as 韓, 幹, or 刊, this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription (OC: *Gar, MC Han[5] or Gan) of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great", particularly in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria and Central Asia.

In North Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Chosŏn (조선, Joseon, [tɕosʰʌn], lit. "[land of the] Morning Calm"). "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon (고조선), who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 bc by China's Han Empire. This go is the Hanja 古 and simply means "ancient" or "old"; it's a modern usage to distinguish the ancient Joseon from the later dynasty. Joseon itself is the modern Korean pronunciation of the Hanja 朝鮮 but it is unclear whether this was a transcription of a native Korean name (OC *T[r]awser, MC Trjewsjen[5]) or a partial translation into Chinese of the Korean capital Asadal (아사달),[7] whose meaning has been reconstructed as "Morning Land" or "Mountain".

History
Main article: History of Korea
See also: History of North Korea and History of South Korea
Part of a series on the
History of Korea

Prehistory
Jeulmun Mumun
Ancient
Gojoseon Jin state
Proto–Three Kingdoms
Buyeo Goguryeo Okjeo Dongye Samhan Ma Byeon Jin
Four Commanderies of Han
Three Kingdoms
Goguryeo 37 BC–668 AD
Baekje 18 BC–660 AD
Silla 57 BC–935 AD
Gaya confederacy 42–562
North–South States
Unified Silla 668–935
Balhae 698–926
Later Three Kingdoms
Later Baekje 892–936
Taebong (Later Goguryeo) 901–918
Silla 57 BC–935 AD
Unitary dynastic period
Goryeo 918–1392
Joseon 1392–1897
Korean Empire 1897–1910
Colonial period
Japanese rule 1910–45
Provisional Government 1919–48
Division of Korea
Military Governments 1945–48
North Korea 1948–present
South Korea 1948–present
By topic
Art Language Military Monarchs Naval Science and technology
Timeline

Korea portal
Prehistory and Gojoseon
Main articles: Prehistoric Korea and Gojoseon
The Korean Academy of North America discovered ancient hominid fossils originating from about 100,000 bc in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. Fluorescent and high-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000 bc.[8] The best preserved Korean pottery goes back to the paleolithic times around 10,000 bc and the Neolithic period begins around 6000 bc.

Gojoseon's[9] founding legend describes Dangun, a descendent of Heaven, as establishing the kingdom in 2333 bc[10] The original capital may have been on the present-day Manchurian border,[11] but was later moved to what is today Pyongyang in North Korea. In 108 bc, the Chinese Han Dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed the Four Commanderies of Han in the area of the northwestern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula,[12] leaving many smaller kingdoms and confederacies in the southern and eastern parts of the peninsula. By 75 bc, three of those commanderies had fallen, but the Lelang Commandery remained as a center of cultural and economic exchange with successive Chinese dynasties until 313, when it fell to Goguryeo.

Proto–Three Kingdoms
Main article: Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea
The Proto–Three Kingdoms period, sometimes called the Several States Period, is the earlier part of what is commonly called the Three Kingdoms Period, following the fall of Gojoseon but before Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla fully developed into kingdoms.

This time period saw numerous states spring up from the former territories of Gojoseon. Buyeo arose in today's North Korea and southern Manchuria, from about the 2nd century bc to 494. Its remnants were absorbed by Goguryeo in 494, and both Goguryeo and Baekje, two of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, considered themselves its successor. Okjeo and Dongye of northern Korea were eventually absorbed into the growing Goguryeo.

Located in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, Samhan refers to the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. Mahan was the largest and consisted of 54 states. Byeonhan and Jinhan both consisted of twelve states, bringing a total of 78 states within the Samhan. These three confederacies eventually developed into Baekje, Silla, and Gaya.

Three Kingdoms
Anapji (Anap Pond) in Gyeongju Historic Areas.
Anapji (Anap Pond) in Gyeongju Historic Areas.
Main article: Three Kingdoms of Korea
The Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje) dominated the peninsula and parts of Manchuria at beginning of the 1st century AD. They competed with each other both economically and militarily.

Goguryeo united Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye and other states in the former Gojoseon territory.[13] Goguryeo was the most dominant power; it reached its zenith in the 5th century, when reign of the Gwanggaeto the Great and his son, Jangsu expanded territory into almost all of Manchuria and part of inner Mongolia, and took the Seoul region from Baekje. Gwanggaeto and Jangsu subdued Baekje and Silla during their times. In addition to contesting for control of the Korean peninsula, because it shared a border with China, Goguryeo had military encounters with various Chinese dynasties, most notably the Goguryeo-Sui War of 612.

Founded around modern day Seoul, the southwestern kingdom Baekje expanded far beyond Pyongyang during the peak of its powers in the 4th century. It had absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as part of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralised government. Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through contacts with the Southern Dynasties during the expansion of its territory. Historic evidence suggests that Japanese culture, art, and language was strongly influenced by the kingdom of Baekje and Korea itself.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][22][23]

Although later records claim that Silla, in the southeast, was the oldest of the three kingdoms, it is now believed to have been the last kingdom to develop. By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a large state, occupying and influencing nearby city states. Silla began to gain power when it annexed the Gaya confederacy in AD 562. The Gaya confederacy was located between Baekje and Silla. The three kingdoms of Korea often warred with each other and Silla often faced pressure from Baekje and Goguryeo but at various times Silla also allied with Baekje and Koguryeo in order to gain dominance over the peninsula.

In 660, King Muyeol of Silla ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin (Gim Yu-sin), aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje. In 661, Silla and Tang moved on Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of General Kim launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year.

Unified Silla and Balhae period
Main articles: North South States Period, Unified Silla and Balhae
In the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, Silla's power gradually extended across the Korean Peninsula. Silla first annexed the adjacent Gaya confederacy. By the 660s, Silla formed an alliance with the Tang Dynasty of China to conquer Baekje and later Goguryeo. After conquering Baekje and Goguryeo, Silla waged the war against the Tang Dynasty of China. In AD 676, Silla won the war with the Tang Dynasty of China and accomplished the unification of the Korean Peninsula. Even though Silla unified most part of the Korean Peninsula, the large part of Goguryeo territory to the north of Korean Peninsula ruled by Balhae. Former Goguryeo General Dae Joyeong led a group of Goguryeo refugees to the Jilin area in Manchuria and founded Balhae (698–926) as the successor to Goguryeo. At its height, Balhae's territory extended from northern Manchuria down to the northern provinces of modern-day Korea. Balhae was destroyed by the Khitans in 926. Some historians call this period North South States Period

Unified Silla fell apart in the late 9th century, giving way to the tumultuous Later Three Kingdoms period (892–935). Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms and absorbed Balhae refugees.

Goryeo Dynasty
Main article: Goryeo
The country Koryeo was founded in 918 and replaced Silla as the ruling dynasty of Korea. "Goryeo" is a short form of "Goguryeo" and the source of the English name "Korea". The dynasty lasted until 1392.

During this period laws were codified, and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished, and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon industry flourished in 12th and 13th century. The publication of Tripitaka Koreana onto 80,000 wooden blocks and the invention of the world's first movable-metal-type printing press in 13th century attest to Koryeo's cultural achievements.

Their dynasty was threatened by Mongol invasions from the 1230s into the 1270s, but the dynastic line continued to survive until 1392 since they negotiated a treaty with the Mongols that kept its sovereign power.

In 1350s, King Gongmin was free at last to reform a Goryeo government. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, which included the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars.

Joseon dynasty
Main article: Joseon
The Gyeongbokgung Palace
The Gyeongbokgung Palace
Korean plated mail
Korean plated mail
In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) with a largely bloodless coup. He named it the Joseon Dynasty in honor of the previous Joseon before (Gojoseon is the first Joseon. "Go", meaning "old", was added to distinguish between the two).

King Taejo moved the capital to Hanseong (formerly Hanyang; modern-day Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung palace. In 1394 he adopted Confucianism as the country's official religion, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy was Neo-Confucianism.

Joseon experienced advances in science and culture. King Sejong the Great (1418–50) promulgated hangul, the Korean alphabet. The period saw various other cultural and technological advances as well as the dominance of neo-Confucianism over the entire peninsula. Slaves, nobi, are estimated to have accounted for about one third of the population of Joseon Korea.[24]

Between 1592 and 1598, the Japanese invaded Korea. Toyotomi Hideyoshi tried to invade the Asian continent through Korea, but was completely defeated by a Righteous army, Admiral Yi Sun-sin and assistance from Ming China. This war also saw the rise of the career of Sun-sin with the "turtle ship". Japanese warriors brought back to Japan as war trophies an estimated 100,000–200,000 noses cut from Korean victims.[25] In the 1620s and 1630s Joseon suffered invasions by the Manchu.

After invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty.

However, during the last years of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the name the "Hermit Kingdom", primarily for protection against Western imperialism before it was forced to open trade beginning an era leading into Japanese imperial rule.

Korean Empire
The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889.
The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889.
Main article: Korean Empire
Further information: Gwangmu Reform
Beginning in 1871, Japan began to force Korea out of the Manchu Qing Dynasty's traditional sphere of influence into its own. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), the Qing Dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong was assassinated by Japanese agents.[26]

In 1897, the Joseon dynasty proclaimed the Korean Empire (1897–1910), and King Gojong became Emperor Gojong. This brief period saw the partially successful modernisation of the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries, influenced by the political encroachment into Korea of Russia, Japan, France, and the United States.

In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on October 26, 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, Itō Hirobumi for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation.

Japanese rule
Main article: Korea under Japanese rule
See also: Japanese war crimes
The memorial tablet for the March 1st movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul
The memorial tablet for the March 1st movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul
In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin.[27] There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes.

Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation[28][29][30] was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military.[31] The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia.

Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939,[32] and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan's military.[33] Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died.[34] Approximately 200,000 girls and women,[35] mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military.[36] In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named "comfort women".[37][38]

During the Japanese annexation, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Sōshi-kaimei.[39] Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed[40] or taken to Japan.[41] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections.[42] One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan.[41][43] Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date[41] this has not occurred.[43] Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Dokdo, islets located east of the Korean Peninsula.[44]

There was a significant level of emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese occupation period, including Korea.[45] By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea.[46] After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan.

Korean War
Main article: Korean War
Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as US Marines fight North Koreans holding the city.
Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as US Marines fight North Koreans holding the city.
In 1945, with the surrender of Japan, the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea.

In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (1950–53) more than one million people died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities.[47] The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line.

Division
Flag of North Korea
Flag of North Korea
Flag of South Korea
Flag of South Korea
Main articles: Division of Korea and Korean reunification
The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic, was established in the north while the Republic of Korea, a Western-style regime, was established in the South. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remains divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states.

Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957, South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana,[48] and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana's.[a]

North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a single-party state, now centred on Kim Il-sung's Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history.

According to R.J. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987;[50] others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone.[51] Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008.[52]

Tensions continue to this day, but the political arena is a far more complicated one. Recently the U.S. has expressed concerns over North Korea's provocation of South Korea by carrying out shelling of the island of Yeonpyeong, which itself lies on a disputed sea border between the two countries.[53][54][55] Swiss novelist Christian Kracht described the peninsula's high tensions to American businessman David Woodard in their correspondence: "My solicitor and I, Michael Aldritch of Hong Kong, are thinking about also visiting the Arirang festivities in April; he showed me the usefulness of visiting DPRK, esp. since things are not going well for the Dear Leader at the moment, so we would like to go back and help in any way we can, as the splittist South Korean propaganda machine is working very hard to belittle and ridicule Kim Jong Il in any way they can."[56]

Geography
Main article: Geography of Korea
See also: Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea and Provinces of Korea
A neighborhood in North Gyeongsang Province
A neighborhood in North Gyeongsang Province
A view of Mount Seorak
A view of Mount Seorak
Daedongyeojijeondo, a map of Korea
Daedongyeojijeondo, a map of Korea
Jeju Island seashore
Jeju Island seashore
Korea is located on the Korean Peninsula in North-East Asia. To the northwest, the Amnok River (Yalu River) separates Korea from China and to the northeast, the Duman River (Tumen River) separates Korea from China and Russia. The peninsula is surrounded by the Yellow Sea to the west, the East China Sea and Korea Strait to the south, and the East Sea.[57] Notable islands include Jeju Island (Jejudo), Ulleung Island (Ulleungdo), and Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo).

The southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu or Paektusan (2,744 m), through which runs the border with China. The southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter. To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan. Some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan (1,439 m), Mount Kumgang or Kumgangsan (1,638 m), Mount Seorak or Seoraksan (1,708 m), Mount Taebaek or Taebaeksan (1,567 m), and Mount Jiri or Jirisan (1,915 m). There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is almost perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan. They are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are basically northwest.

Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan (1950 m) is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of Japan, whose composition is more felsic than Jeju-do. The volcanic islands tend to be younger, the more westward.

Because the mountainous region is mostly on the eastern part of the peninsula, the main rivers tend to flow westwards. Two exceptions are the southward-flowing Nakdong River (Nakdonggang) and Seomjin River (Seomjingang). Important rivers running westward include the Amnok River, the Chongchon River (Chongchongang), the Taedong River (Taedonggang), the Han River (Hangang), the Geum River (Geumgang), and the Yeongsan River (Yeongsangang). These rivers have vast flood plains and provide an ideal environment for wet-rice cultivation.

The southern and southwestern coastlines of Korea form a well-developed ria coastline, known as Dadohae-jin in Korean. Its convoluted coastline provides mild seas, and the resulting calm environment allows for safe navigation, fishing, and seaweed farming. In addition to the complex coastline, the western coast of the Korean Peninsula has an extremely high tidal amplitude (at Incheon, around the middle of the western coast. It can get as high as 9 m). Vast tidal flats have been developing on the south and west coastlines.

Wildlife
Main article: Wildlife of Korea
Animal life of Korea includes a considerable number of bird species and native freshwater fish. Native or endemic species of the Korean Peninsula include Korean hare, Korean water deer, Korean field mouse, Korean brown frog, Korean pine and Korean spruce. The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) with its forest and natural wetlands is a unique biodiversity spot, which harbours eighty two endangered species.

There are also approximately 3,034 species of vascular plants.

Demographics
Main articles: Koreans, Demographics of South Korea and Demographics of North Korea
The combined population of the Koreans is about 73 million (North Korea: 23 million, South Korea: 50 million). Korea is chiefly populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak the Korean language.[58] The number of foreigners living in Korea has also steadily increased since the late 20th century, particularly in South Korea, where more than 1 million foreigners reside.[59] It was estimated in 2006 that only 26,700 of the old Chinese community now remain in South Korea.[60] However, in recent years, immigration from mainland China has increased; 624,994 persons of Chinese nationality have immigrated to South Korea, including 443,566 of ethnic Korean descent.[61] Small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese are also found in North Korea.[62] The baekjeong were an “untouchable” outcaste group of Korea, often compared with the burakumin of Japan and the dalits of India.[63]

Language
Main articles: Korean language and Korean Sign Language
Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul.
Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul.
Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 23 million. Other large groups of Korean speakers are found in China (around 1.8 million speakers), the United States (around 900,000 speakers), the former Soviet Union (around 350,000), Japan (around 700,000), Canada (100,000), Malaysia (70,000) and Australia (150,000). It is estimated that there are around 700,000 people scattered across the world who are able to speak Korean because of job requirements (for example, salespersons or businessmen with Korean contacts), marriages to Koreans or out of pure interest in the language.[citation needed]

The classification of Korean is debated. Some linguists place it in the Altaic language family; others consider it to be a language isolate. Korean is agglutinative in its morphology and SOV in its syntax. Like Japanese and Vietnamese, Korean has borrowed much vocabulary from the Chinese or created vocabulary on Chinese models.

Modern Korean is written almost exclusively in the script of the Korean alphabet (known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosungul in China and North Korea), which was invented in the 15th century. While Hangul may appear logographic, it is actually a phonemic alphabet organised into syllabic blocks. Each block consists of at least two of the 24 hangul letters (jamo): at least one each of the 14 consonants and 10 vowels. Historically, the alphabet had several additional letters (see obsolete jamo). For a phonological description of the letters, see Korean phonology.

Culture and arts
Korean Buddhist architecture
Korean Buddhist architecture
Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu)
Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu)
Main articles: Culture of Korea, Korean art, Korean pottery and porcelain, Korean martial arts, Korean dance, Korean bow and Korean architecture
In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as "Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk" (금수강산, 錦繡江山) and "Eastern Nation of Decorum" (동방예의지국, 東方禮儀之國).[64] Individuals are regarded as one year old when they are born, as Koreans reckon the pregnancy period as one year of life for infants, and age increments increase on New Year's Day rather than on the anniversary of birthdays. Thus, one born immediately before New Year's Day may only be a few days old in western reckoning, but two years old in Korea. Accordingly, a Korean person's stated age (at least among fellow Koreans) will be one or two years more than their age according to western reckoning. However, western reckoning is sometimes applied with regard to the concept of legal age; for example, the legal age for purchasing alcohol or cigarettes in the Republic of Korea is 19, which is measured according to western reckoning.

Literature
Main article: Korean literature
Korean literature written before the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called "Classical" or "Traditional." Literature, written in Chinese characters (hanja), was established at the same time as the Chinese script arrived on the peninsula. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the classical Korean style as early as the 2nd century bc, reflecting Korean thoughts and experiences of that time. Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the peninsula, strongly influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism.

Modern literature is often linked with the development of hangul, which helped spread literacy from the aristocracy to the common men and women. Hangul, however, only reached a dominant position in Korean literature in the second half of the 19th century, resulting in a major growth in Korean literature. Sinsoseol, for instance, are novels written in hangul.

The Korean War led to the development of literature centered on the wounds and chaos of war. Much of the post-war literature in South Korea deals with the daily lives of ordinary people, and their struggles with national pain. The collapse of the traditional Korean value system is another common theme of the time.

Music
Main article: Music of Korea
Korean music includes both folk and classical music. The country has produced internationally prominent composers. Young-ja Lee is one example. She was born in 1931 in Wonju and studied at the Conservatoire de Paris, and the Royal Conservatory of Brussels. She continued her education at the Manhattan School of Music. Lee endured hardships during the Japanese occupation and Korean War, but emerged to become one of the dominant forces in Korean music in the 20th century.[65] Some of the more modernized Korean pop music such as Gangnam Style by Psy is an example of Korean music impacting demographics internationally.

Religion
Main articles: Religion in Korea, Religion in South Korea and Religion in North Korea
See also: Korean shamanism, Korean Confucianism, Korean Buddhism, Taoism in Korea, Christianity in Korea and Islam in Korea
Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s
Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s
Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religious practice has been suppressed in North Korea. Throughout Korean history and culture, regardless of separation; the influence of traditional beliefs of Korean Shamanism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism have remained an underlying religion of the Korean people as well as a vital aspect of their culture; all these traditions have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years up to today despite strong Westernisation from Christian missionary conversions in the South[66][67][68] or the pressure from the Juche government in the North.[69][70]

According to 2005 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 29.2% of the population (of which are Protestants 18.3% and Catholics 10.9%) and Buddhists 22.8%.[71]

Islam in South Korea is practiced by about 45,000 natives (about 0.09% of the population) in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers from Muslim countries.[72]

Cuisine
Main article: Korean cuisine
See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean royal court cuisine
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2014)
Dolsot bibimbap
Dolsot bibimbap
Koreans traditionally believe that the taste and quality of food depends on its spices and sauces, the essential ingredients to making a delicious meal. Therefore, soybean paste, soy sauce, red pepper paste and kimchi are some of the healthiest and the most important in a Korean household.

Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, a side dish which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables, most commonly cabbage. Kimchi is said to relieve the pores on the skin, thereby reducing wrinkles and providing nutrients to the skin naturally. It is also healthy, as it provides necessary vitamins and nutrients. Gochujang (Korean traditional sauce made of red pepper) is also commonly used, often as pepper (chilli) paste, earning the cuisine a reputation for being spicy.

Bulgogi (roasted marinated meat, usually beef), galbi (marinated grilled short ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork belly) are popular meat entrees. Fish is also a popular commodity, as it is the traditional meat that Koreans eat. Meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, such as galbitang (stewed ribs) and doenjang jjigae (fermented bean paste soup). The center of the table is filled with a shared collection of sidedishes called banchan.

Other popular dishes include bibimbap which literally means "mixed rice" (rice mixed with meat, vegetables, and red pepper paste) and naengmyeon (cold noodles).

Instant noodles are also a very popular snack food. Koreans also enjoy food from pojangmachas (street vendors), where one can buy ddeokbokki (rice cake and fish cake with a spicy gochujang sauce), gimbap, and fried squid and glazed sweet potato. Soondae, a sausage made of cellophane noodles and pork blood, is widely eaten. There is also an instant noodle called "Ramyun".

Additionally, some other common snacks include "Choco Pie", shrimp crackers, "bbungtigi" (fried rice cracker), and "nureongji" (slightly burnt rice). Nureongji can be eaten as it is or boiled with water to make a soup. Nureongji can be eaten as a snack or a dessert.

Television
Korean television dramas ("K-dramas") have become popular in many countries, and as a result outdoor locations featured in K-dramas have become popular stops for international tourists. Product placements in the dramas have proven effective in advertising; for example, sales of cosmetics, clothing and food favored by the female lead played by actress Jun Ji Hyun in the drama "You who came from a star" (aka My love from the Stars) rose significantly after the relevant episodes aired. In one notorious case it was reported that a woman in China became ill after consuming nothing but fried chicken and beer - the character's favorite snack - for several days. According to The Economist Jun was single-handedly responsible for a 300 billion dollar increase in the nation's economic activity (the so-called 'Jun Ji Hyun Syndrome').

Children Traditional Game
Gonggi is a popular Korean children's traditional game. This game is played with 5 or more small grape-sized pebbles. Nowadays, stores sell colorful plastic stones instead of finding pebbles. It can be played alone or with friends. And the stones are called "gonggitdol".

CYMERA
CYMERA
Education
Main articles: Education in North Korea and Education in South Korea
The modern South Korean school system consists of six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. Students are required to go to elementary and middle school, and do not have to pay for their education, except for a small fee called a "School Operation Support Fee" that differs from school to school. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranks South Korea's science education as the third best in the world and being significantly higher than the OECD average.[73]

South Korea ranks second on math and literature and first in problem solving[citation needed]. Although South Korean students often rank high on international comparative assessments, the education system is criticised for emphasising too much upon passive learning and memorization. The South Korean education system is rather notably strict and structured as compared to its counterparts in most Western societies. Also, the prevalence of non-school for-profit private institutes such as academies or cram schools (Hagwon [학원]), which too emphasise passive memorisation, as opposed to conceptual understanding, in students are criticised as a major social problem. After students enter university, however, the situation is markedly reversed[citation needed] In Korea, university is hard to enter, and graduation is comparatively easier than entry.

The North Korean education system consists primarily of universal and state funded schooling by the government. The national literacy rate for citizens 15 years of age and above is over 99 percent.[74][75] Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, and then on to universities. The most prestigious university in the DPRK is Kim Il-sung University. Other notable universities include Kim Chaek University of Technology, which focuses on computer science, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, which trains working level diplomats and trade officials, and Kim Hyong Jik University, which trains teachers.

Outside the formal structure of schools and classrooms in the north is the extremely important "social education." This education includes not only extracurricular activities but also family life and the broadest range of human relationships within society. There is great sensitivity to the influence of the social environment on the growing child and its role in the development of his or her character. The ideal of social education is to provide a carefully controlled environment in which children are exposed only to pro-Juche and anti-south influences. According to a North Korean official interviewed in 1990, 'School education is not enough to turn the rising generation into men of knowledge, virtue, and physical fitness. After school, our children have many spare hours. So it's important to efficiently organise their afterschool education'.

Science and technology
Main article: History of science and technology in Korea
Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.
Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.
One of the best known artifacts of Korea's history of science and technology is Cheomseongdae (첨성대, 瞻星臺), a 9.4-meter high observatory built in 634.

The earliest known surviving Korean example of woodblock printing is the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra.[76] It is believed to have been printed in Korea in 750–51 AD which, if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. Goryeo silk was highly regarded by Westerners and Korean pottery made with blue-green celadon was of the highest quality and sought after by even Arabian merchants. Goryeo had a bustling economy with a capital that was frequented by merchants from all over the known world.

During the Joseon period the Geobukseon (Turtle Ship) was invented, which were covered by a wooden deck and iron with thorns,[77][78][79] as well as other weapons such as the bigyeokjincheolloe cannon (비격진천뢰, 飛擊震天雷) and the hwacha.

The Korean alphabet hangul was also invented during this time by King Sejong the Great.

Sport
Main articles: Sport in South Korea and Sport in North Korea
While association football remains one of the most popular sports in Korea, the martial art of taekwondo is still considered to be the national traditional sport. Baseball is also increasing in popularity.

Taekwondo
Main article: Taekwondo
Taekwondo is the national sport of Korea and one of the country's most famous sports. It combines combat techniques, self-defense, sport, exercise and in some cases meditation and philosophy. Taekwondo has become an official Olympic sport, starting as a demonstration event in 1988 and becoming an official medal event in 2000.

Hapkido
Main article: Hapkido
Hapkido is a Korean martial art similar to Jujutsu that employs joint locks, throws, kicks, punches and other striking attacks like attacks against pressure points. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the pure use of strength against strength.

Ssirium
Main article: Ssireum
Ssireum is a form of wrestling that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years, with evidence discovered from Korea's Three Kingdoms Period (57 bc to 688). Ssireum is the traditional national sport of Korea. During a match, opponents grip each other by sash belts wrapped around the waist and the thigh, attempting to throw their competitor to the sandy ground of the ring. The first opponent to touch the ground with any body part above the knee or to lose hold of their opponent loses the round.

Ssireum competitions are traditionally held twice a year, during the Tano Festival (the 5th day of the fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month). Competitions are also held throughout the year as a part of festivals and other events.

See also
Notes
References
Bibliography
Further reading
External links
Look up Korea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Korea topics
Authority control
Categories
This page is based on a Wikipedia article (read/edit) and qw.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.
Cover photo is available under CC BY-SA 2.0 License. Credit: riNux from Taipei, Taiwan (see original file).

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YOU AVIN A LAUGH M8?
┬┴┬┴┤ ( ͡° ͜ʖ├┬┴┬┴
The Trailest Bike On Vital

6/25/2015 11:39 PM

Nwewinit wrote:

What the hell do either of xxohioanxx and oddity's comments have to do with the lightest valve caps. Koorean enginer or not, I believe nothing you have written about kimchi. You used wikipedia as a source. Something smells fishy to me. Point proven, case closed

Well, you should otherwise you'll be one of them. Ohioan's love for Asians, Koreans especially, knows no bounds.

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6/25/2015 11:42 PM
Edited Date/Time: 6/25/2015 11:43 PM

All you fuckers should die lmao




Expected a serious thread ,

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Instagram : braydenbuckingham
My Cult 2 Short

6/26/2015 12:29 AM

Oddity wrote:

What does it smell like though? Like sauerkraut perhaps?

Nwewinit wrote:

What the hell do either of xxohioanxx and oddity's comments have to do with the lightest valve caps. Koorean enginer or not, I believe nothing you have written about kimchi. You used wikipedia as a source. Something smells fishy to me. Point proven, case closed

Oddity wrote:

Well, you should otherwise you'll be one of them. Ohioan's love for Asians, Koreans especially, knows no bounds.

There is no such thing as an ohioan. He's obviously a Japanese schoolgirl and ohio is some sort of greeting from his homeland. Which leads me to my next point, why is the korean propaganda being spread when the valvue caps are made in taiwan.

I watch cartoons, i'm a Japanese expert.

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6/26/2015 6:23 AM

RenegadeXCIX wrote:

I have gone to like 15 different threads and since most people on the internet love to argue, they go completely off topic about which are the lightest valve caps and i never get any useful information. If you dont know the answer to the question just fuck off instead of leaving unnecessary comments.

The lightest valve caps is an important question to answer...

and due to the slack your pedal pressure will be a lot further into a crank to get to, so you'll likely have to figure them out without pedal pressure.

Oh and your comment to "quit being a pussy and take off your brakes" when a kid asked how to make his brakes work better shows how much of a follower you are. You want a freecoaster because a lot of Pros rock em now, and you think it will make you better at fakies/riding. Plus you'll be "cool". Learn how they work by watching tutorials. Ride has a great one on Youtube that explains them pretty well.

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"Hey anybody ever make that mistake like right when you wake up in the morning and you believe in yourself?" -Kyle Kinane

"BIKES!" -Tom Segura

6/26/2015 6:43 AM

I switched about 6 months ago
took a few sessions to be able to even balance while in fakie as back pedaling helps you to keep your balance.
I found that half cabs are much easier to do than a regular fakie due to lack of pressure, however I would advise taking your chain off and riding like that for a week or so to see if you even like it...

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Bruh

6/26/2015 4:56 PM

Oddity wrote:

What does it smell like though? Like sauerkraut perhaps?

Nwewinit wrote:

What the hell do either of xxohioanxx and oddity's comments have to do with the lightest valve caps. Koorean enginer or not, I believe nothing you have written about kimchi. You used wikipedia as a source. Something smells fishy to me. Point proven, case closed

Oddity wrote:

Well, you should otherwise you'll be one of them. Ohioan's love for Asians, Koreans especially, knows no bounds.

Seoul
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Seoul
서울시
Special city
Seoul Special City
서울특별시
transcription(s)
• Hangul 서울특별시
• Hanja 서울特別市
• Revised Romanization Seoul Teukbyeolsi
• McCune–Reischauer Sŏul T'ŭkpyŏlsi

Sights in Seoul (clockwise from top): Gwanghwamun Gate at Gyeongbokgung Palace; statue of Admiral Yi Sun-sin; statue at the War Memorial of Korea; food storage jars at Gyeonbokgung Palace; Jongmyo Shrine; Myeongdong Cathedral; statue of King Sejong the Great; and (center) N Seoul Tower.


Seal of Seoul


Map of South Korea with Seoul highlighted
Coordinates: 37°34′N 126°58′E
Country South Korea
Region Seoul National Capital Area
Districts
25
Government
• Type Seoul Metropolitan Government
Mayor–Council
• Mayor Park Won-soon (NPAD)
• Council Seoul Metropolitan Council
• National Representation
- National Assembly
48 / 300 16.0% (total seats)
48 / 246 19.5% (constituency seats)
List
Area[1]
• Special city 605.21 km2 (233.67 sq mi)
Population (October 31, 2014[2])
• Special city 10,117,909
• Density 17,000/km2 (43,000/sq mi)
• Metro 25,620,000
• Demonym 서울 사람 (Seoul saram), 서울시민 (Seoul-simin), Seoulite
• Dialect Seoul
Time zone UTC +09:00 (Korean Time)
Bird Korean Magpie
Color Seoul Red[3]
Flower Forsythia
Font Seoul fonts (Han River and Namsan)
Mascot Haechi
Slogan “함께 만드는 서울, 함께 누리는 서울” (Literally "Seoul We Create Together, Seoul We Enjoy Together")
Song "서울의 빛" ("The Lights of Seoul")
Tree Ginkgo
GDP(Metro) US$ 845.9 billion [4]
GDP per capita(Metro) US$ 34,355 [5]
Website seoul.go.kr
Seoul (English pronunciation: /soʊl/; Korean: [sʰʌ.ul] ( listen)) – officially the Seoul Special City – is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea, forming the heart of the Seoul Capital Area, which includes the surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, the world's second largest metropolitan area with over 25.6 million people.[6] It is home to over half of South Koreans along with 678,102 international residents.[7] With a population of over 10 million, the megacity is the largest city proper in the OECD.

Situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back more than two thousand years when it was founded in 18 BCE by Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. It continued as the capital of Korea under the Joseon Dynasty. The Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine, Namhansanseong and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty.[8] Seoul is surrounded by mountains, the tallest being Mt. Bukhan, the world's most visited national park per square foot.[9] Modern landmarks include the iconic N Seoul Tower, the gold-clad 63 Building, the neofuturistic Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, the world's second largest indoor theme park,[10] Moonlight Rainbow Fountain, the world's longest bridge fountain[11] and the Sevit Floating Islands. The birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 12 million international visitors in 2013,[12] making it the world's 10th most visited city and 6th largest earner in tourism.[13]

Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from an economic boom called the Miracle on the Han River which transformed it from the damage of the Korean War to the world's 4th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$846 billion[14] in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. A world leading technology hub centered on Gangnam and Digital Media City,[15] the Seoul Capital Area boasts 15[16] Fortune Global 500 companies such as Samsung, the world's largest technology company, as well as LG and Hyundai-Kia. In 2013, the city's GDP per capita (PPP) of $39,448 was comparable to that of France and Finland. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and eighth in the Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences.[17] Seoul ranked seventh in the Sustainable Cities Index, the highest in Asia and ranked second worldwide in the social category. It also hosts the world's most art openings per square mile.[18]

Seoul is the world's most wired city[18] and ranked first in technology readiness by PwC's Cities of Opportunity report.[19] Its public transportation infrastructure is the world's densest[20] and ranked as the best in the Northern Hemisphere in the Sustainable Cities Index.[21] It is served by the KTX high-speed rail and the Seoul Subway, the world's largest subway network,[22] providing 4G LTE, WiFi and DMB inside subway cars. Seoul is connected via AREX to Incheon International Airport, rated the world's best airport nine years in a row (2005–2013) by Airports Council International.[23] Lotte World Tower, a 556m (1,824 ft) supertall skyscraper with 123 floors, is being built in Seoul to become the OECD's tallest in 2015 with the world's tallest observation deck and art gallery.[24][25] Its Lotte Cinema houses the world's largest cinema screen.[26] Seoul's COEX Mall is the world's largest underground shopping mall.[27] Emporis ranked Seoul's skyline having the world's fourth highest visual impact among major cities.[28]

Seoul hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup and the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit. A UNESCO City of Design, Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital.

Etymology
Main article: Names of Seoul
The city has been known in the past by the names Wirye-seong (위례성/慰禮城, during the Baekje era), Hanju (한주/漢州, during the Silla era), Namgyeong (남경/南京, during the Goryeo era), Hanseong (한성/漢城, during both the Baekje and Joseon eras), Hanyang (한양/漢陽, during the Joseon era), Gyeongseong (경성/京城, during the colonial era).[29] Its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city," which is believed to be derived from the word Seorabeol (서라벌/徐羅伐), which originally referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.[30] The reason behind Seoul having so many names has its reasons. During Japan's annexation in Korea, "Hanseong" (漢城) was renamed to "Gyeongseong" (京城) to prevent confusion with the character "漢" as it also referred to Chinese people. In reality, the ancient name of Seoul, Hanseong's 漢 originally had the meaning "Big" or "Vast". The Japanese government decided to change the character from 漢 to 京 in order to not make people mistake that Seoul had any connections with Chinese people.

Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja (Chinese characters used in the Korean language). On January 18, 2005, Seoul government officially changed its official Chinese language name to Shou'er (simplified Chinese: 首尔; traditional Chinese: 首爾; pinyin: shǒu'ěr) from the historic Hancheng (simplified Chinese: 汉城; traditional Chinese: 漢城; pinyin: hànchéng), of which use is becoming less common.[31][32][33]

History
Main articles: History of Seoul and Timeline of Seoul
Gyeongbokgung
Gyeongbokgung
Donggwoldo, the landscape painting of Changdeokgung
Donggwoldo, the landscape painting of Changdeokgung
Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BC.[34]

Seoul is first recorded as Wiryeseong, the capital of Baekje (founded in 18 BC) in the northeastern Seoul area.[34] There are several city walls remaining in the area that date from this time. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall just outside Seoul, is widely believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site.[35] As the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, and from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century.

In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, which was referred to as the "Southern Capital". It was only from this period that Seoul became a larger settlement.[34] When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul (also known as Hanyang and later as Hanseong), where it remained until the fall of the dynasty. The Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, Changdeokgung, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872.[34]

Originally, the city was entirely surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals, thieves and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands (except along Bugaksan Mountain (북악산/北岳山), north of the downtown area[36]), the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun (commonly known as Namdaemun) and Honginjimun (commonly known as Dongdaemun).[37] During the Joseon dynasty, the gates were opened and closed each day, accompanied by the ringing of large bells at the Bosingak belfry.[38] In the late 19th century, after hundreds of years of isolation, Seoul opened its gates to foreigners and began to modernize. Seoul became the first city in East Asia to introduce electricity in the royal palace, built by the Edison Illuminating Company[39] and a decade later Seoul also implemented electrical street lights.[40]

Much of the development was due to trade with foreign countries like France and United States. For example, the Seoul Electric Company, Seoul Electric Trolley Company, and Seoul Fresh Spring Water Company were all joint Korean–American owned enterprises.[41] In 1904, an American by the name of Angus Hamilton visited the city and said, "The streets of Seoul are magnificent, spacious, clean, admirably made and well-drained. The narrow, dirty lanes have been widened, gutters have been covered, roadways broadened. Seoul is within measurable distance of becoming the highest, most interesting and cleanest city in the East."[42]

After the annexation treaty in 1910, the Empire of Japan annexed Korea and renamed the city Gyeongseong ("Kyongsong" in Chinese and "Keijo" in Japanese). Japanese technology was imported, the city walls were removed, some of the gates demolished. Roads became paved and Western-style buildings were constructed. The city was liberated at the end of World War II.[34]

In 1945 the city was officially named Seoul and designated as a special city in 1949.[34]

During the Korean War, Seoul changed hands between the Russian/Chinese-backed North Korean forces and the American-backed South Korean forces several times, leaving the city heavily damaged after the war. The capital was temporarily relocated to Busan.[34] One estimate of the extensive damage states that after the war, at least 191,000 buildings, 55,000 houses, and 1,000 factories lay in ruins. In addition, a flood of refugees had entered Seoul during the war, swelling the population of the city and its metropolitan area to an estimated 1.5 million by 1955.[43]

Following the war, Seoul began to focus on reconstruction and modernization. As Korea's economy started to grow rapidly from the 1960s, urbanization also accelerated and workers began to move to Seoul and other larger cities.[43] From the 1970s, the size of Seoul administrative area greatly expanded as it annexed a number of towns and villages from several surrounding counties.[44]

According to 2012 census data, the population of the Seoul area makes up around 20% of the total population of South Korea,[45] Seoul has become the economic, political and cultural hub of the country,[34] with several Fortune 500 companies, including Samsung, SK Holdings, Hyundai, POSCO and LG Group headquartered there.[46]

Seoul was the host city of the 1986 Asian Games and 1988 Summer Olympics as well as one of the venues of the Football World Cup 2002.

Geography
Han River
Han River
Seoul is in the northwest of South Korea. Seoul proper comprises 605.25 km2,[1] with a radius of approximately 15 km (9 mi), roughly bisected into northern and southern halves by the Han River. The Han River and its surrounding area played an important role in Korean history. The Three Kingdoms of Korea strove to take control of this land, where the river was used as a trade route to China (via the Yellow Sea).[47] The river is no longer actively used for navigation, because its estuary is located at the borders of the two Koreas, with civilian entry barred. The city is bordered by eight mountains, as well as the more level lands of the Han River plain and western areas.

Climate
Main article: Climate of Seoul
Seoul
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
21 2−6
25 5−3
47 102
65 188
106 2313
133 2718
395 2922
364 3022
169 2617
52 2010
53 123
22 4−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
[show]Imperial conversion
Seoul has a humid continental/subtropical transitional climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa/Cwa), with characteristics of both. November–May is more akin to a continental climate while the warmer months are more like a subtropical climate with elements of a tropical wet/dry climate. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until September. August, the warmest month, has an average temperature of 22.4 to 29.6 °C (72 to 85 °F) with higher temperatures possible. Winters are often cold to freezing with an average January temperature of −5.9 to 1.5 °C (21.4 to 34.7 °F) and are generally much drier than summers, with an average of 28 days of snow annually. Sometimes, temperatures do drop dramatically to below −10.0 °C (14.0 °F), in odd occasions rarely as low as −15.0 °C (5.0 °F) in the mid winter period between January and February.



[hide]Climate data for Seoul (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1913–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9) 18.7
(65.7) 23.8
(74.8) 29.8
(85.6) 34.4
(93.9) 37.2
(99) 38.4
(101.1) 38.2
(100.8) 35.1
(95.2) 30.1
(86.2) 25.9
(78.6) 17.7
(63.9) 38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7) 4.7
(40.5) 10.4
(50.7) 17.8
(64) 23.0
(73.4) 27.1
(80.8) 28.6
(83.5) 29.6
(85.3) 25.8
(78.4) 19.8
(67.6) 11.6
(52.9) 4.3
(39.7) 17.0
(62.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7) 0.4
(32.7) 5.7
(42.3) 12.5
(54.5) 17.8
(64) 22.2
(72) 24.9
(76.8) 25.7
(78.3) 21.2
(70.2) 14.8
(58.6) 7.2
(45) 0.4
(32.7) 12.5
(54.5)
Average low °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4) −3.4
(25.9) 1.6
(34.9) 7.8
(46) 13.2
(55.8) 18.2
(64.8) 21.9
(71.4) 22.4
(72.3) 17.2
(63) 10.3
(50.5) 3.2
(37.8) −3.2
(26.2) 8.6
(47.5)
Record low °C (°F) −22.5
(−8.5) −19.6
(−3.3) −14.1
(6.6) −4.3
(24.3) 2.4
(36.3) 8.8
(47.8) 12.9
(55.2) 13.5
(56.3) 3.2
(37.8) −5.1
(22.8) −11.9
(10.6) −23.1
(−9.6) −23.1
(−9.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.8
(0.819) 25.0
(0.984) 47.2
(1.858) 64.5
(2.539) 105.9
(4.169) 133.2
(5.244) 394.7
(15.539) 364.2
(14.339) 169.3
(6.665) 51.8
(2.039) 52.5
(2.067) 21.5
(0.846) 1,450.5
(57.106)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.5 5.8 7.4 7.8 9.0 9.9 16.3 14.6 9.1 6.3 8.7 7.4 108.8
Avg. relative humidity (%) 59.8 57.9 57.8 56.2 62.7 68.1 78.3 75.6 69.2 64.0 62.0 60.6 64.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 160.3 163.3 189.0 205.0 213.0 182.0 120.0 152.5 176.2 198.8 153.2 152.6 2,066
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[48] [49] [50]


Administrative districts
Main article: List of districts of Seoul
The old flag of Seoul (1947–1996)
The old flag of Seoul (1947–1996)
Seoul Districts
Seoul Districts
Seoul is divided into 25 gu (구; 區) (district).[51] The gu vary greatly in area (from 10 to 47 km2) and population (from fewer than 140,000 to 630,000). Songpa has the most people, while Seocho has the largest area. The government of each gu handles many of the functions that are handled by city governments in other jurisdictions. Each gu is divided into "dong" (동; 洞) or neighbourhoods. Some gu have only a few dong while others like Jongno District have a very large number of distinct neighborhoods. Gu of Seoul consist of 423 administrative dongs (행정동) in total.[51] Dong are also sub-divided into 13,787 tong (통; 統), which are further divided into 102,796 ban in total.

Dobong District (도봉구; 道峰區)
Dongdaemun District (동대문구; 東大門區)
Dongjak District (동작구; 銅雀區)
Eunpyeong District (은평구; 恩平區)
Gangbuk District (강북구; 江北區)
Gangdong District (강동구; 江東區)
Gangnam District (강남구; 江南區)
Gangseo District (강서구; 江西區)
Geumcheon District (금천구; 衿川區)
Guro District (구로구; 九老區)
Gwanak District (관악구; 冠岳區)
Gwangjin District (광진구; 廣津區)
Jongno District (종로구; 鍾路區)
Jung District (중구; 中區)
Jungnang District (중랑구; 中浪區)
Mapo District (마포구; 麻浦區)
Nowon District (노원구; 蘆原區)
Seocho District (서초구; 瑞草區)
Seodaemun District (서대문구; 西大門區)
Seongbuk District (성북구; 城北區)
Seongdong District (성동구; 城東區)
Songpa District (송파구; 松坡區)
Yangcheon District (양천구; 陽川區)
Yeongdeungpo District (영등포구; 永登浦區)
Yongsan District (용산구; 龍山區)
Demographics
Seoul City Hall
Seoul City Hall
Seoul proper is noted for its population density, which is almost twice that of New York and eight times greater than Rome. Its metropolitan area was the most densely populated in the OECD in Asia in 2012, and second worldwide after that of Paris.[52] Nearly all of Seoul's residents are Korean, with some small Chinese, Japanese, and expatriate minorities. As of December 2013, the population was 10.14 million,[53] in 2012, it was 10,442,426.[54] As of the end of June 2011, 10.29 million Republic of Korea citizens lived in the city. This was a .24% decrease from the end of 2010. The population of Seoul has been dropping since the early 1990s, the reasons being the high costs of living and an aging population.[53]

The number of foreigners living in Seoul is 255,501 in 2010 according to Seoul officials.[55] As of June 2011, 281,780 foreigners were located in Seoul. Of them, 186,631 foreigners (66%) were Chinese citizens of Korean ancestry. This was an 8.84% increase from the end of 2010 and a 12.85% increase from June 2010. The next largest group was Chinese citizens who are not of Korean ethnicity; 29,901 of them resided in Seoul. The next highest group consisted of the 9,999 United States citizens who were not of Korean ancestry. The next highest group were the Republic of China (Taiwan) citizens, at 8,717.[56]

Religion





Circle frame.svg
Religion in Seoul (2005)[57]
Not religious and other (46.2%)
Protestantism (22.8%)
Buddhism (16.8%)
Catholicism (14.2%)
The two major religions in Seoul are Christianity and Buddhism. Other religions include Muism (indigenous religion) and Confucianism. Seoul is home to the world's largest Christian congregation, Yoido Full Gospel Church , which has around 830,000 members.[58]

According to the census of 2005, of the people of Seoul 39% follow Christianity (22.8% Protestantism and 14.2% Catholicism) and 16.8% follow Buddhism.[57] 46.2% of the population is irreligious, Muslim, or other.

Economy
Lotte World indoor theme park and shopping mall
Lotte World indoor theme park and shopping mall
See also: Economy of South Korea
Seoul is the business and financial hub of South Korea. Although it accounts for only 0.6 percent of the nation's land area, it generated 21 percent of the country's GDP in 2006.[59] In 2008 the Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index ranked Seoul No.9.[60] The Global Financial Centres Index in 2015 listed Seoul as the 6th financially most competitive city in the world.[61] The Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Seoul 15th in the list of "Overall 2025 City Competitiveness" regarding future competitiveness of cities.[62]

Samsung headquarters at Gangnam Station
Samsung headquarters at Gangnam Station
Manufacturing
The traditional, labour-intensive manufacturing industries have been continuously replaced by information technology, electronics and assembly-type of industries,[63][64] however, food and beverage production, as well as printing and publishing remained among the core industries.[63] Major manufacturers are headquartered in the city, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai, Kia and SK. Notable food and beverage companies include Jinro, whose soju is the most sold alcoholic drink in the world, beating out Smirnoff vodka;[65] top selling beer producers Hite (merged with Jinro) and Oriental Brewery.[66] It also hosts food giants like Seoul Dairy Cooperative, Nongshim Group and Lotte.



Finance
63 Building in Yeouido, the financial center of Seoul
63 Building in Yeouido, the financial center of Seoul
Seoul hosts large concentration of headquarters of International companies and banks, including 15 companies on fortune 500 list such as Samsung, LG and Hyundai.[67] Most bank headquarters and the Korea Exchange are located in Yeouido (Yeoui island),[63] which is often called "Korea's Wall Street" and has been serving as the financial center of the city since the 1980s.[68]

Commerce
Main article: Shopping in Seoul
D-Cube City shopping mall at Sindorim Station
D-Cube City shopping mall at Sindorim Station
The largest wholesale and retail market in South Korea, the Dongdaemun Market, is located in Seoul.[69] Myeongdong is a shopping and entertainment area in downtown Seoul with mid- to high-end stores, fashion boutiques and international brand outlets.[70] The nearby Namdaemun Market, named after the Namdaemun Gate, is the oldest continually running market in Seoul.[71]

Insadong is the cultural art market of Seoul, where traditional and modern Korean artworks, such as paintings, sculptures and calligraphy are sold.[72] Hwanghak-dong Flea Market and Janganpyeong Antique Market also offer antique products.[73][74] Some shops for local designers have opened in Samcheong-dong, where numerous small art galleries are located. Itaewon caters mainly to foreign tourists and American soldiers based in the city.[75] The Gangnam district is one of the most affluent areas in Seoul[75] and is noted for the fashionable and upscale Apgujeong-dong and Cheongdam-dong areas and the COEX Mall. Wholesale markets include Noryangjin Fisheries Wholesale Market and Garak Market. The Yongsan Electronics Market is the largest electronics market in Asia.[76]

Times Square is one of Seoul's largest shopping malls featuring the CGV Starium, the world's largest permanent 35 mm cinema screen.[77]

Architecture
See also: Architecture of South Korea
Seoul Panorama from Namhansanseong
Seoul Panorama from Namhansanseong
Sungnyemun
Sungnyemun
The traditional heart of Seoul is the old Joseon Dynasty city, now the downtown area, where most palaces, government offices, corporate headquarters, hotels, and traditional markets are located. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs from west to east through the valley before emptying into the Han River, was for many years covered with concrete, but was recently restored by an urban revival project in 2005.[78] Jongno street, meaning "Bell Street," has been a principal street and one of the earliest commercial steets of the city,[79][80] on which one can find Bosingak, a pavilion containing a large bell. The bell signaled the different times of the day and controlled the four major gates to the city. North of downtown is Bukhan Mountain, and to the south is the smaller Namsan. Further south are the old suburbs, Yongsan District and Mapo District. Across the Han River are the newer and wealthier areas of Gangnam District, Seocho District and surrounding neighborhoods.

Historical architecture
Jongmyo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Jongmyo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Changdeokgung, one of the five grand palaces of Korea, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Changdeokgung, one of the five grand palaces of Korea, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Seoul has many historical and cultural landmarks. In Amsa-dong Prehistoric Settlement Site, Gangdong District, neolithic remains were excavated and accidentally discovered by a flood in 1925.[81]

Urban and civil planning was a key concept when Seoul was first designed to serve as a capital in the late 14th century. The Joseon Dynasty built the "Five Grand Palaces" in Seoul – Changdeokgung, Changgyeonggung, Deoksugung, Gyeongbokgung and Gyeonghuigung – all of which are located in the district of Jongno District and Jung District. Among them, Changdeokgung was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997 as an "outstanding example of Far Eastern palace architecture and garden design". The main palace, Gyeongbokgung, underwent a large-scale restoration project.[82] The palaces are considered exemplary architecture of the Joseon period. Beside the palaces, Unhyeongung is known for being the royal residence of Regent Daewongun, the father of Emperor Gojong at the end of the Joseon Dynasty.

Deoksugung in autumn
Deoksugung in autumn
Seoul has been surrounded by walls that were built to regulate visitors from other regions and protect the city in case of an invasion. Pungnap Toseong is a flat earthen wall built at the edge of the Han River which is widely believed to be the site of Wiryeseong. Mongchon Toseong (몽촌토성; 蒙村土城) is another earthen wall built during the Baekje period which is now located inside the Olympic Park.[35] The Fortress Wall of Seoul was built early in the Joseon Dynasty for protection of the city. After many centuries of destruction and rebuilding, approximately 2/3 of the wall remains, as well as six of the original eight gates. These gates include Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun, commonly known as Namdaemun (South Great Gate) and Dongdaemun (East Great Gate). Namdaemun was the oldest wooden gate until a 2008 arson attack, and was re-opened after complete restoration in 2013.[83] Situated near the gates are the traditional markets and largest shopping center, Namdaemun Market and Dongdaemun Market.

There are also many buildings constructed with international styles in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Independence Gate was built in 1897 to inspire an independent spirit. Seoul Station was opened in 1900 as Gyeongseong Station.

Modern architecture
Lotte World Mall opened in 2014 with the world's largest cinema[26] and the 123-floor supertall Lotte World Tower will open in 2016 with the world's tallest observation deck.
Lotte World Mall opened in 2014 with the world's largest cinema[26] and the 123-floor supertall Lotte World Tower will open in 2016 with the world's tallest observation deck.
Various high-rise office buildings and residential buildings, like the Gangnam Finance Center, the Tower Palace, N Seoul Tower and Jongno Tower, dominate the city's skyline. A series of new high rises are under construction, including the Lotte World Tower, scheduled to be completed by 2016.[84] As of February 2014, the tallest building in the city is the 279m high Three International Finance Center.[85]

The World Trade Center Seoul, located in Gangnam District, hosts various expositions and conferences. Also in Gangnam District is the COEX Mall, a large indoor shopping and entertainment complex. Downstream from Gangnam District is Yeouido, an island that is home to the National Assembly, major broadcasting studios, and a number of large office buildings, as well as the Korea Finance Building and the Yoido Full Gospel Church. The Olympic Stadium, Olympic Park, and Lotte World are located in Songpa District, on the south side of the Han River, upstream from Gangnam District. Two new modern landmarks of Seoul are Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park, designed by Zaha Hadid, and the new wave-shaped Seoul City Hall, by Yoo Kerl of iArc.

In 2010 Seoul was designated the World Design Capital for the year.[86]

Culture
Technology
MBC, SBS and YTN offices at Digital Media City.
MBC, SBS and YTN offices at Digital Media City.
Seoul has a very technologically advanced infrastructure.[87][88] It has the world's highest fibre-optic broadband penetration, resulting in the world's fastest internet connections with speeds up to 1 Gbps.[89][90] Seoul provides free Wi-Fi access in outdoor spaces. This 47.7 billion won ($44 million) project will give residents and visitors Internet access at 10,430 parks, streets and other public places by 2015.[91]

Museums
Main article: List of museums in Seoul
National Museum of Korea
National Museum of Korea
Seoul is home to 115 museums,[92] including three national and nine official municipal museums. The National Museum of Korea is the most representative of museums in not only Seoul but all of South Korea. Since its establishment in 1945, the museum has built a collection of 220,000 artifacts.[93] In October 2005, the museum moved to a new building in Yongsan Family Park. The National Folk Museum is situated on the grounds of the Gyeongbokgung Palace in the district of Jongno District and uses replicas of historical objects to illustrate the folk history of the Korean people.[94] Bukchon Hanok Village and Namsangol Hanok Village are old residential districts consisting of hanok Korean traditional houses, parks, and museums that allows visitors to experience traditional Korean culture.[95][96]

The War Memorial, one of nine municipal museums in Seoul, offers visitors an educational and emotional experience of various wars in which Korea was involved, including Korean War themes.[97][98] The Seodaemun Prison is a former prison built during the Japanese occupation, and is currently used as a historic museum.[99]

National Folk Museum of Korea.
National Folk Museum of Korea.
The Seoul Museum of Art and Ilmin Museum of Art have preserved the appearance of the old building that is visually unique from the neighboring tall, modern buildings. The former is operated by Seoul City Council and sits adjacent to Gyeonghuigung Palace, a Joseon dynasty royal palace. For many Korean film lovers from all over the world, the Korean Film Archive is running the Korean Film Museum and Cinematheque KOFA in its main center located in Digital Media City(DMC), Sangam-dong. The Tteok & Kitchen Utensil Museum and Kimchi Field Museum provide information regarding Korean culinary history.

Religious monuments
Myeongdong Cathedral
Myeongdong Cathedral
There are also religious buildings that take important roles in Korean society and politics. The Wongudan altar was a sacrificial place where Korean rulers held heavenly rituals since the Three Kingdoms period. Since the Joseon Dynasty adopted Confucianism as its national ideology in the 14th century, the state built many Confucian shrines. The descendants of the Joseon royal family still continue to hold ceremonies to commemorate ancestors at Jongmyo. It is the oldest royal Confucian shrine preserved and the ritual ceremonies continue a tradition established in the 14th century. Munmyo and Dongmyo were built during the same period. Although Buddhism was suppressed by the Joseon state, it has continued its existence. Jogyesa is the headquarters of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. Hwagyesa and Bongeunsa are also major Buddhist temples in Seoul.

The Myeongdong Cathedral is a landmark of the Myeongdong, Jung District and the biggest Catholic church established in 1883. It is a symbol of Catholicism in Korea. It was also a focus for political dissent in the 1980s. In this way the Roman Catholic Church has a very strong influence in Korean society.

There are many Protestant churches in Seoul. The most numerous are Presbyterian, but there are also many Methodist, Baptist, and Lutheran churches. Yoido Full Gospel Church is a Pentecostal church affiliated with the Assemblies of God on Yeouido in Seoul. With approximately 830,000 members (2007), it is the largest Pentecostal Christian congregation in the world, which has been recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records.[citation needed]

Festivals
In October 2012 KBS Hall in Seoul hosted major international music festivals – First ABU TV and Radio Song Festivals within frameworks of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union 49th General Assembly.[100][101] Hi! Seoul Festival is a seasonal cultural festival held four times a year every spring, summer, autumn, and winter in Seoul, South Korea since 2003. It is based on the "Seoul Citizens' Day" held on every October since 1994 to commemorate the 600 years history of Seoul as the capital of the country. The festival is arranged under the Seoul Metropolitan Government. As of 2012, Seoul has hosted Ultra Music Festival Korea, an annual dance music festival that takes place on the 2nd weekend of June.[102]

Parks
Further information: List of parks in Seoul
Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park.
Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park.
Namsan Park offers hiking, recreation and views of the downtown Seoul skyline. The N Seoul Tower is located at Namsan Park. Seoul Olympic Park is located in Songpa District and was built to host the 1988 Summer Olympics. The Wongaksa Pagoda 10 tier pagoda is situated In Tapgol Park, a small public park with an area of 19,599 m2 (210,962 sq ft). Areas around streams serve as public places for relaxation and recreation. Tancheon stream and the nearby area serve as a large park with paths for both walkers and cyclists. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs nearly 6 km (4 mi) through downtown Seoul, is popular among both Seoul residents and tourists.

Olympic Park, Seoul.
Olympic Park, Seoul.
The Seoul metropolitan area accommodates six major parks, including the Seoul Forest, which opened in mid-2005. The Seoul National Capital Area also contains a green belt aimed at preventing the city from sprawling out into neighboring Gyeonggi Province. These areas are frequently sought after by people looking to escape from urban life on weekends and during vacations.

Seoul is also home to the world's largest indoor amusement park, Lotte World. Other recreation centers include the former Olympic and World Cup stadiums and the City Hall public lawn.

Sports
Seoul Olympic Stadium.
Seoul Olympic Stadium.
International competition
Seoul hosted the 1986 and 2014 Asian Games, commonly known as Asiad, 1988 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games. It also served as one of the host cities of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Seoul World Cup Stadium hosted the opening ceremony and first game of the tournament.

Taekwondo is Korea's national sport and Seoul is the location of the Kukkiwon, the world headquarters of taekwondo, as well as the World Taekwondo Federation.

Domestic sports clubs
Football
Main article: Football in Seoul
Seoul's most popular football club is the FC Seoul. This club is one of the most successful football club in Asia.
Recently, FC Seoul finished as a runner-up in 2013 AFC Champions League.

Men's football
Tier League Club Home stadium Notes
Top K League Classic FC Seoul Seoul World Cup Stadium (North Seoul)
2nd K League Challenge Seoul E-Land FC Seoul Olympic Stadium (South Seoul)
4th K3 League Seoul United Madeul Stadium
Seoul FC Martyrs Gangbuk Public Stadium
Jungnang Chorus Mustang Jungnang Public Ground
Women's football
Tier League Club Home stadium Notes
Top WK League Seoul WFC Hyochang Stadium, Seoul Olympic Auxiliary Stadium
Baseball
Seoul has three professional baseball clubs under the KBO League: One of oldest clubs, Doosan Bears, LG Twins and Nexen Heroes.

Basketball
Seoul SK Knights and Seoul Samsung Thunders.
Transportation
Main article: Transportation in Seoul
Shinbundang Line, a fully driverless metro travelling up to 90km/h.
Shinbundang Line, a fully driverless metro travelling up to 90km/h.
Seoul features one of the world's most advanced transportation infrastructures that is constantly under expansion. Its system dates back to the era of the Korean Empire, when the first streetcar lines were laid and a railroad linking Seoul and Incheon was completed. Seoul's most important streetcar line ran along Jongno until it was replaced by Line 1 of the subway system in the early 1970s. Other notable streets in downtown Seoul include Euljiro, Teheranno, Sejongno, Chungmuro, Yulgongno, and Toegyero. There are nine major subway lines stretching for more than 250 km (155 mi), with one additional line planned. As of 2010, 25% of the population has a commute time of an hour or more.

Bus
Main article: Seoul Buses
Seoul Buses
Seoul Buses
Seoul's bus system is operated by the Seoul Metropolitan Government (S.M.G.), with four primary bus configurations available servicing most of the city. Seoul has many large intercity/express bus terminals. These buses connect Seoul with cities throughout South Korea. The Seoul Express Bus Terminal, Central City Terminal and Seoul Nambu Terminal are located in the district of Seocho District. In addition, East Seoul Bus Terminal in Gwangjin District and Sangbong Terminal in Jungnang District operate in the east of the city. To reduce air pollution in the metropolitan area, the municipal government is planning to convert over seven thousand of Seoul's diesel engine buses to natural gas by 2010.[103]

Subway
Yongsan Station
Yongsan Station
Main article: Seoul Metropolitan Subway
Seoul has a comprehensive subway network that interconnects every district of the city and the surrounding areas. With more than 8 million passengers per day, Seoul has the busiest subway system in the world. The Seoul Metropolitan Subway has 19 total lines which serve Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi province, western Gangwon province, and northern Chungnam province. In addition, in order to cope with the various modes of transport, Seoul's metropolitan government employs several mathematicians to coordinate the subway, bus, and traffic schedules into one timetable. The various lines are run by Korail, Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, NeoTrans Co. Ltd., AREX, and Seoul Metro Line 9 Corporation.

Train
KTX Sancheon
KTX Sancheon
Seoul is connected to every major city in Korea by rail. Seoul is also linked to most major Korean cities by the KTX high-speed train, which has a normal operation speed of more than 300 km/h (186 mph). Major railroad stations include:

Seoul Station, Yongsan District: Gyeongbu line (KTX/Saemaul/Mugunghwa-ho), Gyeongui line (Saemaul/Commuter)
Yongsan Station, Yongsan District: Honam line (KTX/Saemaul/Mugunghwa), Jeolla/Janghang lines (Saemaul/Mugunghwa)
Yeongdeungpo Station, Yeongdeungpo District: Gyeongbu/Honam/Janghang lines (Saemaul/Mugunghwa)
Cheongnyangni Station, Dongdaemun District: Gyeongchun/Jungang/Yeongdong/Taebaek lines (Mugunghwa)
Airports
Gimpo International Airport Station
Gimpo International Airport Station
Two international airports serve Seoul. Gimpo International Airport, formerly in Gimpo but annexed to Seoul in 1963, was for many years (since its original construction during the Korean War) the only international airport serving Seoul. Other domestic airports were also built around the time of the war, including Yeouido.

When it opened in March 2001, Incheon International Airport on Yeongjong island in Incheon changed the role of Gimpo Airport significantly. Incheon is now responsible for almost all international flights and some domestic flights, while Gimpo serves only domestic flights with the exception of flights to Haneda Airport in Tokyo, Osaka Kansai International Airport, Taipei Songshan Airport in Taipei, Hongqiao Airport in Shanghai, and Beijing Capital International Airport in Beijing. This has led to a significant drop in flights from Gimpo Airport, though it remains one of South Korea's busiest airports.

Meanwhile, Incheon International Airport has become, along with Hong Kong, a major transportation center for East Asia.

Incheon and Gimpo are linked to Seoul by highways, and to each other by the Incheon International Airport Railroad, which is also linked to Incheon line #1. Gimpo is also linked by subway (line No. 5 and #9). The Incheon International Airport Railroad, connecting the airport directly to Seoul Station in central Seoul, was recently opened. Shuttle buses also transfer passengers between Incheon and Gimpo airports.

Education
Further information: Education in South Korea and List of universities in Seoul
Universities
Seoul National University
Seoul National University
Seoul is home to the majority of South Korea's most prestigious universities, including Seoul National University, Yonsei University, Korea University, Sogang University, Sungkyunkwan University, Hanyang University, Chung-Ang University, Dongguk University, Ewha Womans University, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Hongik University, Kookmin University, Konkuk University, Kyung Hee University, Kwangwoon University, Seoul National University of Education, Soongsil University, Sookmyung Women's University, and the University of Seoul.

Secondary education
Education from grades 1–10 is compulsory. Students spend six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. Secondary schools generally require that the students wear uniforms. There is an exit exam for graduating from high school and many students proceeding to the university level are required to take the College Scholastic Ability Test that is held every November but they don't necessarily need to get it.

Seoul is home to various specialized schools, including three science high schools (Hansung Science High School, Sejong Science High School and Seoul Science High School), and six foreign language high schools (Daewon Foreign Language High School, Daeil Foreign Language High School, Ewha Girls' Foreign Language High School, Hanyoung Foreign Language High School, Myungduk Foreign Language High School and Seoul Foreign Language High School). Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education comprises 235 college-preparatory high schools, 80 vocational schools, 377 middle schools, and 33 special education schools as of 2009.

International relations
Seoul is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South Korea
Twin towns – Sister cities
[hide]Seoul's twin towns and sister cities around the world:[104][105]
Iran Tehran, Iran (1963)[106][107]
Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan (1968)[104][108]
Turkey Ankara, Turkey (1971)[104]
United States Honolulu, United States (1973)[104]
United States San Francisco, United States (1976)[104]
Brazil São Paulo, Brazil (1977)[104][109][110]
Colombia Bogota, Colombia (1982)[104]
Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia (1984)[104]
Japan Tokyo, Japan (1988)[104]
Russia Moscow, Russia (1991)[104]
Australia New South Wales, Australian state (1991)[104]
France Paris, France (1991)[104]
Mexico Mexico City, Mexico (1992)[104]
China Beijing, China (1993)[104]
Mongolia Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (1995)[104]
Vietnam Hanoi, Vietnam (1996)[104]
Philippines Lipa, Batangas, Philippines (1996)[104]
Poland Warsaw, Poland (1996)[104]
Egypt Cairo, Egypt (1997)[104]
Italy Rome, Italy (2000)[104]
Kazakhstan Astana, Kazakhstan (2004)[104]
United States Washington, D.C., United States (2006)[104]
Greece Athens, Greece (2006)[104]
Thailand Bangkok, Thailand (2006)[104][111]
Uzbekistan Tashkent, Uzbekistan (2010)[104]
See also[edit]

Korea portal
Geography of South Korea
List of cities in South Korea
List of Korea-related topics
Mayor of Seoul
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^ http://www.umfkorea.com/
^ "Seoul More Enjoyable For a Day". Retrieved 30 July 2008.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Seoul – Sister Cities [via WayBackMachine]". Seoul Metropolitan Government (archived 2012-04-25). Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
^ "International Cooperation: Sister Cities". Seoul Metropolitan Government. www.seoul.go.kr. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2008.[dead link]
^ New Economic Spaces in Asian Cities: From Industrial Restructuring to the Cultural Turn. Routledge and the Taylor & Francis Group. 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
^ "Atlas of Tehran Metropolis". Tehran Municipality. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
^ Taipei Sister city list Taipei City Council
^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal – No 14471" [Research Municipal Legislation – No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
^ Lei Municipal de São Paulo 14471 de 2007 WikiSource (Portuguese)
^ International Affairs Division. "Relationship with Sister Cities". International Affairs Division website. International Affairs Division, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
External links[edit]
Look up Seoul in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Official sites[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Seoul.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Seoul.
Seoul Metropolitan Government
Seoul Information & Communication Plaza
Tourism and living information[edit]
i Tour Seoul – The Official Seoul Tourism Guide Site
VisitSeoul – The Official Seoul Tourism Guide YouTube Channel
Seoul Travel Guide – Travel information for visitors to Seoul
Maps[edit]
Seoul Map Browser (from Seoul Metropolitan Government web site)
Seoul subway map
Photos[edit]
Seoul Snapshots
Pictures of Seoul
Seoul Street Art & Graffiti
Preceded by
Capital of Baekje
18 BC–475 AD Succeeded by
Ungjin
Preceded by
Gaegyeong Capital of Korea Succeeded by
Abolished
Preceded by
New creation Capital of South Korea
1948– Succeeded by
Incumbent
[show]
Articles related to Seoul
Authority control
WorldCat VIAF: 138220682 LCCN: n79066627 GND: 4122021-3 BNF: cb12351202g (data) NDL: 00628694
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